Cookie Consent by Free Privacy Policy Generator 📌 Top 170+ Software Testing : Interview Question


✅ Top 170+ Software Testing : Interview Question


💡 Newskategorie: Programmierung
🔗 Quelle: dev.to

Get set for 170+ software testing interview questions that will make you confident for your next interview. These questions cover a wide range of topics such as software testing concepts, testing techniques, types of testing, testing tools, software development lifecycle, and quality assurance.

The questions here are presented in a clear and concise format, making it easy for you to prepare for software testing interviews. Each question is followed by a detailed answer that will provide you with in-depth explanations and examples, that too in an easy-to-understand way to help you understand the concepts better.

Preparing for software testing interviews can be quite stressful and exhausting but keeping an eye on exam patterns and questions while maintaining discipline can do wonders. Below are the tips for software testing interview preparation which will certainly help you achieve your goal.

  • Study and understand the basics: Before diving into the advanced topics, make sure you have a solid understanding of the basics of software testing including types of testing, testing methodologies, and common testing tools.

  • Practice, practice, practice: Practice answering sample interview questions, either with a friend or by recording yourself. This will help you feel more comfortable and confident during the actual interview.

  • Be specific: When answering questions, provide specific examples from your previous testing experiences. This will demonstrate your practical knowledge and expertise.

  • Be honest: If you don’t know the answer to a question then don’t try to guess or make something up. It’s better to admit that you don’t know and offer to research the answer later.

  • Ask questions: At the end of the interview, take the opportunity to ask questions about the company, the role, or anything else that is important to you. This shows your interest and enthusiasm for the position.

  • Highlight your soft skills: Software testing is not just about technical skills, but also about communication, problem-solving, and attention to detail. Make sure to highlight your soft skills in addition to your technical abilities.

  • Stay up to date: Keep yourself up to date with the latest trends and developments in the software testing industry. This will demonstrate your passion and commitment to the field.

Remember, the interview is not just about proving your technical skills but also about demonstrating your communication skills, problem-solving abilities, and overall fit for the role and the company. Be confident, stay calm and be yourself.

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Software Testing Interview Questions for Freshers

1. What is software testing?

Software testing refers to the process of evaluating the quality and functionality of a software application to ensure that it meets the specified requirements and expectations of the end users. Since the last decade, software has become more and more complex hence software testing as a field has emerged as a booming field. It is performed by running the software and comparing its actual behavior to its expected behavior to identify defects, errors, and bugs.

2. What are the different types of software testing?

There are various types of software testing, such as :

  • Unit Testing: Testing individual units or components of the software application in isolation.

  • Integration Testing: Testing how different units or components of the software application work together.

  • System Testing: Testing the entire software application as a whole to ensure it meets the specified requirements.

  • Acceptance Testing: Testing whether the software application meets the acceptance criteria of the end-users.

  • Regression Testing: Re-testing previously tested software components to ensure they still work as expected after changes or updates.

  • Performance Testing: Testing the performance, scalability, and stability of the software application under different load conditions.

  • Security Testing: Testing the security features of the software application to ensure it is not vulnerable to attacks or threats.

3. What is black box testing?

Black box testing is a type of software testing that focuses on the behavior of a system without having any knowledge of its internal structure or workings. In other words, the tester does not have access to the code or the design of the system being tested.

In black box testing, the focus is on testing the functionality of the system without having any knowledge of “how it actually works”. This approach allows testers to identify issues and ensure that the system meets the requirements or not.

To understand black box testing with a real-life example, let’s consider the scenario of a person buying a new car. When a person buys a car, they expect it to work properly without any issues. The buyer does not need to know how the engine works or how the transmission shifts gears, they only care that the car meets their needs and performs as expected.

Similarly, in black box testing, the tester is like a car buyer who is only concerned with the system’s behavior, rather than the internal workings of the system. The tester uses the system’s inputs and observes the outputs to check if the system behaves as expected.

4. What is white box testing?

White box testing is a software testing technique that focuses on examining the internal structure and implementation details of a software system and is thus also called clear-box testing or structural testing. The tester must have knowledge of the internal workings of the software including its code and design while performing white box testing.

Our purpose in doing white box testing is to ensure that the software works correctly according to its internal logic and also fulfills the specified requirements. Testers typically use this technique to validate the accuracy of individual code units as well as overall system behavior.

White box testing involves various methods such as statement coverage, branch coverage, path coverage and condition coverage. These techniques aim to exercise different parts of the code and assess their behavior under different scenarios. Testers may also perform code reviews and static analysis to identify potential issues and improve the overall code quality.

By conducting white box testing, you can uncover errors and vulnerabilities that may be hidden within the software’s internal structure. It complements other testing techniques such as black box testing which focuses on the external behavior of the software without considering its internal implementation details.

Overall, white box testing plays a vital role in ensuring the robustness and quality of software systems by verifying the correctness of their internal components and logic.

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5. What is gray box testing?

From the name itself, you can infer that gray box testing is a software testing approach that combines elements of both white box testing and black box testing. In gray box testing, the tester has limited knowledge of the internal workings of the software while still having access to some internal information and working details.

Unlike black box testing where the tester has no knowledge of the internal structure or code implementation, gray box testing allows the tester to have partial knowledge and this knowledge may include access to design documents or limited visibility into the code.

Our main purpose in conducting gray box testing is to leverage this partial knowledge to design and execute test cases that target specific areas of the software system. Testers can use their understanding of the internal workings to create tests that go beyond the typical inputs and expected outputs of black-box testing.

Gray box testing can be beneficial in certain cases where the tester wants to validate specific features or module integration points within the software and it can help uncover defects that may be difficult to detect through purely black box testing.

Some common techniques used in gray box testing include API testing, database testing, and limited code-level testing. Additionally, testers may also use techniques like data-driven testing, state transition testing, or model-based testing to achieve effective coverage.

Example: A real-life example of gray box testing can be realized when testing a website’s login feature. The tester knows the general architecture of the website such as the front-end and back-end components but does not have access to the actual source code. They may also have some knowledge of the encryption algorithm used to store passwords but not the exact implementation. With this partial knowledge, the tester can identify potential bugs in the login process and provide feedback to improve the overall security and functionality of the website.

6. What is A/B testing?

A/B testing is a type of testing used in the field of marketing and web development. It involves comparing two versions of a product or webpage to determine which one performs better. The two versions referred to as A and B, are presented to users at random and their responses are compared to determine which version is more effective.

In A/B testing, a specific metric is identified to measure the performance of each version. For example, if testing two versions of a website’s homepage, the metric might be click-through rate or time spent on the page. Users are divided into two groups, with one group seeing version A and the other group seeing version B. The groups are typically large enough to ensure statistical significance, and the results are analyzed to determine which version performed better.

A/B testing is used to optimize and improve various aspects of a product or website such as user experience, design, functionality, and content. It is a valuable tool for marketers and developers to make data-driven decisions and improve the performance of their products.

7. What is SPICE?

SPICE stands for Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination and it is a model that assesses and improves software development processes based on international standards. It is an initiative to standardize the software development process and to increase the quality of the software product. SPICE provides a set of requirements that software development organizations should meet to ensure that their processes are well-defined and repeatable which results in producing high-quality software.

8. What are latent defects?

You might have guessed it from the name itself, latent defects are defects that exist in the software code but have not yet been triggered due to the specific conditions required to cause them not yet being met. These defects can be a result of flaws in the software production process or errors in the pre-production testing phase. When users perform a particular task in an unusual or rare situation then latent defects can be revealed.

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9. What are masked defects?

Masked defects are defects that have not yet caused a failure in the system since they are being hidden by another defect. These defects can only be identified when the defect hiding it is exposed by the user through a specific operation. Masked defects are often discovered in situations where multiple defects exist and one defect masks the other hence preventing it from being executed.

10. What is usability testing?

Usability Testing is a method used to evaluate a product’s usability by testing it with real users. The main purpose we do usability testing is to identify usability problems such as difficulties in navigation, and task completion and to determine how easily users can learn to use the product.

Usability testing is usually conducted in a controlled environment in which users are under observation while performing specific tasks and then this feedback is used to refine the product and improve the user experience.

11. What is regression testing?

Regression testing is the process of re-testing previously tested software components to ensure that they still work as expected after changes or updates. It is performed to identify and fix any defects or bugs that might have been introduced due to the changes in code or system.

Regression testing is an iterative process that requires careful planning, execution, and reporting of test results and it involves selecting the appropriate test cases, executing them, and comparing the actual results with expected results to identify any deviations.

12. What is performance testing?

Performance testing is done to check how well a software or system works under different conditions. You test things like how quickly it responds and how smoothly it runs under heavy loads and this helps us to identify any performance issues that might be slowing down the system or causing problems for the users. By doing performance testing we can make sure that the system is running efficiently and smoothly which makes for a better user experience overall.

To understand it better, imagine your favorite sports team gearing up for a big game. They want to ensure they’re at their best, so they train hard and test their skills against different scenarios. This is essentially what performance testing is for a system or application. It’s like putting them through their paces to see how they handle a certain workload or set of conditions.

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13. What is load testing?

Load testing is a type of testing where we simulate a heavy workload on a system or application to see how well it can handle a large number of users or transactions. It’s like giving the system a real workout to see how much it can lift, so to speak!

Think of it this way: You wouldn’t want to host a party without first making sure your house can handle the number of guests you’re inviting, right? Load testing is like checking your house’s capacity for guests before the party.

Similarly, load testing helps us identify how many users or transactions a system can handle before it starts to slow down or crash. By conducting load testing, we can optimize the system’s performance and ensure it’s ready to handle the expected load. So, load testing is like taking your system to the gym, getting it in shape, and making sure it’s strong enough to handle whatever comes its way!

14. What is compatibility testing?

From the name itself, we can infer that compatibility testing is done to ensure that a software application is compatible with various hardware, operating systems and other external systems that it will interact with. This type of testing is important because it ensures that the application can run and function properly on different platforms and configurations.

During compatibility testing, we test the application with different configurations to ensure that it is compatible with different setups. This helps us to ensure that the end-users have a consistent experience with the application regardless of the platform they are using. We use a variety of tools and techniques to perform compatibility testing such as virtual machines and simulators.

Overall we can say that compatibility testing is an essential part of the software testing process as it ensures that the application works seamlessly across various platforms and configurations.

15. What is security testing?

Security testing is a vital aspect of software testing that focuses on evaluating the security of a system or application. The goal of security testing is to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses in the software that could be exploited by attackers or malicious users. Security testing involves a wide range of techniques and methodologies to ensure that the software is secure and can protect against unauthorized access, data theft, and other security breaches.

Think of it like a security guard checking every nook and cranny of a building to make sure it’s safe and secure. Security testing is the digital equivalent of that where we put the software through a series of tests to make sure it’s protected against any potential threats. We do this by trying to hack into the system or application trying to find any loopholes or weaknesses that could be exploited by someone with malicious intent.

16. What is manual testing?

Manual testing is a process of testing a software application manually without the use of any automated testing tools. In manual testing, testers execute test cases and scenarios by hand and simulate the actions of end users. Our main purpose of manual testing is to identify and report any defects or issues in the software application.

For example, let’s say you are a tester for a mobile banking application. You need to test the application by performing different actions such as opening the app, logging in, transferring money, and viewing account statements. During manual testing, you would go through each of these actions step by step and ensure that the application is performing as expected. You would look for any errors, unexpected behavior or inconsistencies that could affect the user experience. If you find any issues, you would document them and report them to the development team for further investigation and resolution.

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17. What is a test strategy?

A test strategy is a document that outlines the testing approach and objectives for evaluating the software application’s functionalities, features, and components for the tester. Usually, it includes information on the testing environment, resources, timelines, and methodologies for ensuring comprehensive testing of the software application.

18. What is a bug?

We can define a bug as a fault or defect in software that causes it to behave in an unintended manner or in a way we don’t need/want. A bug may be caused by an error in the design, coding, or other stages of software development. The bug can be a reason for any deviation from the expected behavior of the software or system that impedes its performance.

19. What is a test environment?

A test environment is the infrastructure and resources required to perform software testing including hardware, software, and other resources such as test data and test tools. A test environment should closely mimic the production environment to ensure that the testing is representative of the final system. Test environments may include dedicated testing hardware or cloud-based infrastructure.

20. What is defect tracking?

We can define defect tracking as a process of identifying, documenting and managing defects found during the software testing process. Usually, it will involve creating a defect report and then assigning it to the relevant team member and finally tracking the progress of the defect resolution until it is resolved.

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21. What is an API?

An API refers to Application Programming Interface. It serves as a bridge between two software components, enabling them to communicate with one another. By abstracting the complexity of a software program’s internal workings, an API simplifies its usage and enables its user to concentrate solely on the inputs and outputs necessary to operate it.

During the development of software, developers typically employ third-party libraries, rather than creating everything from scratch. An API offers a common language for communication, providing a universally-understood interface that both software components can use.

In addition, APIs can be used to supply data to an application. For example, if you are creating a weather app that shows the temperature, rather than developing your own technology for gathering this information, you can instead utilize an API provided by a meteorological institute to access the necessary data.

22. What is smoke testing?

We can define smoke testing as a type of software testing that is performed to ensure that the critical functions of the software application are working as expected before conducting more detailed testing and it usually involves executing a set of pre-defined tests to check if the software application can perform basic functions such as installation, startup, login and navigation. It is usually performed before more comprehensive testing is done to save time and effort.

Let’s say you have just finished assembling a new computer. Before you start installing all the software and applications on it, you decide to perform a smoke test to ensure that the computer is functioning properly. You turn on the computer and check if it boots up successfully, the screen is working, and the keyboard and mouse are functioning correctly. If all these critical functionalities are working fine, you can move ahead with installing more software and conducting further testing. However, if there are any issues in the critical functionalities during the smoke test, you can identify and fix them before proceeding with another test.

23. What is alpha testing?

Alpha testing is a type of acceptance testing conducted by the software developer or tester in a controlled environment to simulate real-world usage scenarios and collect feedback from a limited number of end-users. Our main goal of alpha testing is to identify bugs and issues with the software before releasing it to the public.

Let’s say you’re a software developer and you’re developing a new messaging app. Before releasing it to the public, you conduct alpha testing with a small group of friends and family members who use different devices and operating systems. During the alpha testing, you observe how they use the app, what issues they encounter and what features they find useful or confusing. You collect their feedback and use it to improve the app’s usability and user experience. Once the issues are resolved then only you move forward with beta testing and eventually release the app to the public.

24. What is beta testing?

Beta testing is a type of software testing that involves releasing a pre-release version of a software product to a selected group of end-users commonly known as beta testers. Our main goal of beta testing is to gather feedback from real users in real-world environments and identify any issues or other areas of improvement before the software is officially released to the public.

During beta testing, the software is made available to a specific user base which can be a targeted group of customers or a closed group of individuals with specific expertise. Beta testers are encouraged to use the software under normal operating conditions and report any bugs or unexpected behavior they encounter. They may also provide feedback on the overall user experience, interface design, performance and functionality.

Beta testing serves several purposes. First, it helps uncover issues that may have been missed during internal testing, as real users interact with the software in diverse environments and usage scenarios. Second, it allows the development team to gather valuable feedback from end-users, which can be used to prioritize and address critical issues, refine features, and enhance the overall user experience. Additionally, beta testing generates user testimonials and real-world case studies, which can be utilized for marketing purposes.

Let’s understand with an example: Imagine a gaming company developing a new video game that they plan to release for a popular gaming console. Before the game’s official release, they invite a select group of external gamers to participate in beta testing. These gamers will have access to the game for a limited time and will be asked to provide feedback on any bugs or issues they encounter while playing. The feedback received during the beta testing phase will be used to make any necessary improvements to the game before its official release to the public.

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25. What is localization testing?

As we can get the idea from the term itself, localization testing is a type of testing that ensures that a software application or product is adapted to the language, culture, and other specific requirements of a particular region and this testing is necessary because different regions have different languages, currencies, time formats and other cultural differences that affect the functionality of the software.

For example, suppose a software company has developed accounting software that is used in the US and is now planning to expand its market to France. The company needs to ensure that the software is adapted to the French language, currency, tax regulations, and other specific requirements of France. Localization testing will help ensure that the software works correctly in the French environment and that it meets the needs and expectations of French users. This testing will involve checking the correctness of the translated text, date and time formats, currency conversions, and other country-specific requirements.

26. What is globalization testing?

Again from the term you can infer that globalization testing is a type of software testing that you perform to ensure that a software application can function properly across different cultures and regions of the world. This includes testing the application’s ability to handle different languages, date and time formats, currencies, and other regional settings.

Let’s say you are part of a team that is developing a new e-commerce website that will be used by customers all over the world. You want to make sure that the website can handle different languages, currencies, and other regional settings.

To perform globalization testing, you would first identify the different regions and cultures that the website will be used in. You would then create test cases to check that the website can handle different languages and character sets as well as different date and time formats and currencies.

For example, you might test that the website can handle different currency symbols and formats such as the dollar sign ($) or the euro symbol (€). You might also test that the website can display dates in different formats such as dd/mm/yyyy or mm/dd/yyyy.

By performing globalization testing you can ensure that your e-commerce website will work seamlessly for customers all over the world regardless of their location or language preferences.

27. What is recovery testing?

Recovery testing is a type of testing that focuses on testing a system’s ability to recover from failures or disasters such as power outages or hardware failures or software crashes. Our main goal of recovery testing is to ensure that the system can recover its data and functionality in the event of a failure.

Recovery testing involves intentionally causing a system failure and then observing how the system responds and recovers from the failure and this type of testing is often performed in environments that are similar to the production environment to ensure that the system behaves the same way in both environments.

It can be used to identify weaknesses in a system’s recovery processes and to determine the time required for the system to recover from a failure and the recovery process can involve restoring data from backups or restarting the system or other steps depending on the nature of the failure.

An example of recovery testing might involve simulating a power outage and verifying that the system is able to gracefully shut down and then restart and restore all data and functionality upon power restoration.

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28. What is installation testing?

In installation testing, we focus on verifying that the installation process of a software application is working correctly and whether the software can be installed and upgraded or uninstalled without any issues. Our main goal of installation testing is to ensure that the installation process is hassle-free and without any bugs or errors and does not affect the functionality of the software.

Let’s understand with an example, Imagine you are developing a software application that needs to be installed on different operating systems such as Windows, Mac, and Linux. During installation testing, you would verify that the installation process works correctly on all supported operating systems and that the software is installed in the correct location with the correct configuration. You would also check for any errors or issues that may occur during the installation process such as missing files or other dependencies. Consider this, during installation testing, you may discover that the software fails to install on certain versions of the operating system or that it requires a specific library or component to be installed beforehand.

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29. What is sanity testing?

Sanity testing is a type of software testing that is performed to ensure that the software application’s code changes or updates did not introduce any new defects or issues. It involves executing a set of pre-defined tests to check the software application’s basic functions and features after making changes to the code.

Suppose you are a software tester responsible for testing an e-commerce website. You receive a new build of the website that contains updates to the shopping cart feature. Before performing any extensive testing you can quickly check the basic functionalities such as adding a product to the cart, removing a product from the cart, and proceeding to checkout. This initial round of testing is called sanity testing. If any of the basic functionalities fail then the build is rejected and sent back to the development team for further fixes.

In summary, sanity testing is a quick and straightforward way to check the basic functionalities of a software build to ensure it’s worth testing further.

30. What is integration testing?

Integration testing is a type of software testing that evaluates the software applications’ functionality and behavior after integrating different modules or components of the software application and it involves testing the interactions and interfaces between the different modules or components of the software application to ensure that they can work together as a whole.

31. What is acceptance testing?

Acceptance testing is a crucial quality assurance (QA) process that evaluates how well an application meets the requirements and approval of end-users. It can be conducted in various forms such as beta testing, application testing, or end-user testing depending on the organization’s approach.

Our main aim in conducting acceptance testing is to ensure that the software or application is aligned with business requirements and end-users’ expectations. The QA team is responsible for conducting the acceptance tests, and the test results are either a pass or fail. If the software or application fails the acceptance test then it indicates the presence of a flaw and further improvements are required before it can be released into production.

32. What skills are required for a software tester?

Software testers need to have a combination of technical and interpersonal skills to be successful in their role.

Some of the technical skills that are required include an understanding of software development processes, knowledge of testing tools and methodologies, familiarity with different programming languages, and the ability to write test cases and scripts. Testers also need to be familiar with software testing techniques and types of testing. Additionally, they should have a good understanding of the software being tested and be able to work collaboratively with the development team.

Interpersonal skills are equally important for a software tester. Testers need to be able to communicate effectively with different stakeholders including developers, product managers, and business analysts.

They should be able to write clear and concise reports and be able to present findings to non-technical stakeholders. Attention to detail and problem-solving skills are also critical for testers as they need to be able to identify and diagnose issues and work with developers to resolve them.

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33. What are the qualities of a good software tester?

As a software tester, you must possess or develop certain qualities that will help you excel in your career. Some of these important qualities are as follows:

  • Attention to detail: You should have a keen eye for detail and be able to spot even the smallest of errors or inconsistencies in the software you are testing.

  • Analytical skills: You should have strong analytical skills to be able to analyze and interpret complex data and troubleshoot issues.

  • Communication skills: You should be able to effectively communicate with developers and project managers to convey issues and status updates.

  • Curiosity: You should be curious about the software you are testing and have a desire to understand how it works and how it can be improved.

  • Creativity: You should be able to think creatively to come up with unique testing scenarios and test cases that can help identify potential issues.

  • Adaptability: You should be able to adapt to changing project requirements and be able to work effectively in a fast-paced environment.

  • Persistence: You should be persistent in identifying and addressing issues even if they may be difficult to replicate or reproduce.

Overall, being a good software tester requires a combination of technical expertise and analytical skills with the required personal qualities.

34. What is the difference between unit testing and integration testing?

Unit testing and integration testing are two types of testing that are performed during the software development lifecycle. Let’s see the differences between them based on a few points:

  • Scope: Unit testing focuses on testing individual units or components of the software whereas integration testing focuses on testing the interactions between multiple units.

  • Objective: The main objective of unit testing is to verify the correctness of the individual units whereas the main objective of integration testing is to verify the interactions and interfaces between the units.

  • Test environment: Unit testing is typically performed in a simulated environment while integration testing requires a real environment that includes multiple units.

  • Timing: Unit testing is typically done early in the development cycle while integration testing is done once the units have been developed and are ready for integration.

  • Level of testing: Unit testing is a type of white-box testing that focuses on internal code structure while integration testing is a type of black-box testing that focuses on external behavior.

35. What is a test case?

A test case is a set of conditions that a software tester uses to determine if a software application meets the specified customer requirements. Test case design involves defining preconditions, naming the test case, specifying input conditions, and expected outcomes. Test cases are derived from test scenarios and represent a fundamental testing activity.

A test case document provides comprehensive information on the testing strategy, testing process, preconditions, and expected outputs. These test cases are executed during the testing process to verify if the software application performs its intended tasks. Test cases are written as a one-time effort and can be used for future regression testing.

Test cases are valuable tools for defect reporting as they link defects with a test case ID. Detailed test case documentation serves as a reliable guard for the testing team ensuring that any missed requirements or functionalities are caught during the execution of these comprehensive test cases.

36. What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is an approach to testing software that emphasizes the tester’s creativity and freedom to explore the application rather than following predefined test cases. The tester uses their knowledge, skills and experience to design and execute tests in real-time based on their understanding of the system under test.

The tester may start by exploring a particular feature or functionality but the testing evolves as new information is discovered during the testing process. Exploratory testing is typically performed without any preconceived notions or assumptions about the software and can uncover defects that may be missed by traditional scripted testing.

For example, suppose you are testing a new mobile app that allows users to book flights. In exploratory testing, you might start by booking a flight using the app as intended. Then you might explore different scenarios such as trying to book a flight for a date that has already passed or attempting to book a flight for a destination that doesn’t exist or entering invalid credit card information. Through this process of exploration, you might identify issues such as incorrect error messages or confusing user interfaces that would not have been found through scripted testing.

37. What is ad-hoc testing?

Ad-hoc testing is a type of informal software testing that is performed without a defined test plan or test case. In this approach, the tester will explore the application and try to find defects based on their experience and knowledge. It is a flexible and creative way of testing that can quickly identify critical issues in the software.

For example, let’s say you are testing a new e-commerce website and you decide to perform ad-hoc testing by adding and removing products from your cart in various ways. While doing this you notice that the shipping charges are not being calculated correctly and you immediately report this issue to the development team. This is an example of ad-hoc testing where you identified a critical issue without following a predefined test plan.

38. What is a test suite?

A test suite is a collection of test cases that are designed to test a specific feature or functionality or aspect of a software application. Test suites can be organized into groups based on their purpose/ scope/priority. It typically includes a set of related test cases that are organized and executed together to ensure comprehensive testing of the software application.

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39. What is test data?

Test data is a set of inputs or data that are used to execute the test cases and evaluate the software applications’ functionalities, features and components and usually includes both valid and invalid inputs to ensure comprehensive testing of the software application.

40. What is a test plan?

A test plan is a document that outlines the overall approach, objectives and activities for testing a software system. It serves as a roadmap for the testing process by providing a structured framework for executing and managing testing activities and usually created during the early stages of the project and is continuously updated and refined throughout the testing phase.

A comprehensive test plan includes the following key elements:

  • Test Objectives: Clearly define the objectives of the testing effort and this includes specifying what is to be tested such as system functionality, performance, security, or any other relevant aspects.

  • Scope: Define the boundaries and extent of the testing effort by identifying the specific components or features that will be included in the testing scope as well as any areas or functionalities that will be excluded from testing.

  • Test Approach: Describe the overall strategy and approach for testing and this includes identifying the types of testing that will be performed such as functional testing, integration testing or others, and specify any specific techniques or tools that will be utilized.

  • Test Deliverables: Identify the artifacts and documents that will be produced as part of the testing process such as test cases, test data, test reports, or any other relevant documentation.

  • Test Environment: Describe the hardware, software, and network configurations required for testing and specify any prerequisites necessary to set up the test environment accurately.

  • Test Schedule: Define the timeline for testing activities including start and end dates, milestones and deadlines. Outline the sequencing of testing activities, dependencies, and any limitations that may impact the testing schedule.

  • Test Resources: Identify the resources required for testing including the roles and responsibilities of the testing team members and specify the skills and infrastructure needed to execute the testing activities effectively.

  • Test Risks and Mitigation: Identify potential risks and challenges that may impact the testing process or the quality of the software and provide a plan for risk mitigation including strategies for addressing identified risks and minimizing their impact.

  • Test Execution: Describe the specific procedures for executing tests including how test cases will be executed, the criteria for test completion, and the process for tracking and reporting test results and defects.

  • Test Exit Criteria: Define the conditions that must be met to consider testing complete and this includes specific criteria for test coverage, defect resolution and any other factors that decide the readiness of the software for release.

The test plan serves as a reference and guide for the testing team, stakeholders, and project management throughout the testing process as it ensures that testing activities are well-structured and aligned with the project objectives leading to thorough testing and the delivery of high-quality software.

41. What is a test scenario?

A test scenario is a hypothetical situation or use case that describes the end-to-end behavior of a software application and it generally gives us the outlines of a series of steps or actions that a user might take when interacting with the system and specifies the expected results or outcomes for each step. Test scenarios are used to ensure that an application is functioning as expected and meeting user requirements.

42. What is automated testing?

From the term itself, we can infer that automated testing is a type of testing in which the test cases are executed using software tools and scripts instead of manually testing the application and our main goal of automated testing is to increase the efficiency of the testing process and it is done by reducing the time and effort required for testing manually and identifying defects and errors more quickly and accurately using software tools.

For example, let’s say there is a website or mobile application that requires frequent updates and changes. Instead of manually testing every single feature and functionality each time a change is made, automated testing can be used to quickly run through test cases and ensure that everything is still functioning properly. This saves time and resources and allows developers to focus on other important aspects of the project.

Another example, let’s say there is a banking application that needs to undergo rigorous testing to ensure the security of customer data. Automated testing can help quickly and accurately identify any potential security vulnerabilities and ensure they are addressed before the application is released to the public.

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43. What is configuration testing?

Configuration testing is an essential software testing technique that ensures the smooth functioning of an application under various hardware and software configurations. The primary objective of configuration testing is to test the application with multiple configurations to evaluate its functional requirements and find the optimal configurations under which it operates without any flaws or defects.

In this testing method, testers examine various system configurations that are likely to be encountered in real-world scenarios such as different operating systems, hardware configurations, software versions, network environments, and more. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the application works seamlessly with different configurations and produces the expected outputs.

Through configuration testing, software testers can identify compatibility issues between the application and different hardware and software configurations and it helps to minimize the risks of application failure or malfunction when deployed in different environments. By detecting configuration-related defects and issues, configuration testing provides critical insights into the application’s performance and functionality thereby enhancing its quality and reliability.

Configuration testing is an important part of the software development process as it ensures that the application meets the desired functionality and performance standards across various environments.

44. What is the difference between alpha and beta testing?

Alpha testing and beta testing are two types of user acceptance testing performed in software development. Here are the differences between alpha and beta testing:

  • Definition: Alpha testing is performed by the software development team at the developer’s site while beta testing is performed by end-users in a real-world environment.

  • Timing: Alpha testing is conducted before beta testing while beta testing is conducted after alpha testing.

  • Test Environment: In alpha testing, the testing environment is controlled by the development team while in beta testing, the testing environment is uncontrolled and the users test the software in their own environments.

  • Purpose: Alpha testing is performed to identify defects and issues and improve the software product before its release while beta testing is performed to get feedback from the end users and identify any remaining issues.

  • Scope: Alpha testing is a more comprehensive testing process that covers all aspects of the software product while beta testing focuses on testing the product’s usability, functionality, and compatibility with different environments.

  • Testers: Alpha testing is conducted by the software development team and may involve limited external stakeholders while beta testing is performed by external stakeholders or end-users

We can conclude that the primary differences between alpha and beta testing is their objectives, test environments, and scope. Alpha testing is focused on identifying defects and improving the software product while beta testing is focused on feedback from end-users and identifying any remaining issues.

45. What is static testing?

Static testing is a software testing technique that involves reviewing and analyzing software documentation and code without executing the program. This can include reviewing requirements specifications, design documents, and source code to identify defects, inconsistencies or potential problems. Static testing can be performed manually or using automated tools and is typically used to identify defects early in the development process when they are less expensive to fix.

46. What is dynamic testing?

Dynamic testing is a software testing technique that involves evaluating the behavior and performance of a software application under various conditions by executing it and observing its output.

It involves the actual execution of the software code to verify if the output matches the expected behavior as defined in the test cases. During dynamic testing, software testers design test cases and run them on the software generating actual results that are compared with the expected results.

Our main goal of dynamic testing is to identify and rectify defects or errors in the software code and thus ensure that the application functions as intended. It is a crucial component of software testing and is typically performed after static testing has been completed.

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47. What is configuration management?

Configuration management is the process of managing all the components that make up the software or system including source code, test scripts, third-party software, hardware, data and documentation. It involves careful and thorough management of these items throughout the project and product life cycle.

This has implications for testing as it allows testers to manage their test ware and test results using the same mechanisms. Configuration management also supports the build process and enables us to keep a record of what is being tested making it easier to report and fix defects.

48. What is a defect report?

A defect report is a formal document that contains a clear and concise description of defects found during the software testing process.

It provides detailed information on:

  • What actions led to the defect?

  • How to reproduce the defect?

  • What should the expected results be?

Quality Assurance teams and end-users are typically responsible for creating defect reports. End-users often report more defects as they tend to use the application in various ways to explore its features. This feedback helps the development team to improve the quality of the software by fixing the defects in a timely manner. Overall, a well-written defect report plays a critical role in the software development process.

49. What is a test script?

In software testing, a test script refers to a set of instructions or commands written in a programming language that is used to perform automated tests on software applications. Test scripts outline the steps to be taken to carry out a specific test scenario including the inputs and expected outputs.

Test scripts can be written in various programming languages such as Java, Python, or Ruby and can be executed by automated testing tools to perform functional or non-functional tests. The purpose of test scripts is to automate repetitive testing tasks, improve testing efficiency and accuracy, and reduce the risk of human error.

Test scripts are often created by software testers or automation engineers as part of the test automation process and they play an essential role in the continuous integration and delivery of software applications.

50. What is a V-model?

V-model is a software development and testing model that emphasizes the relationships between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated testing phase. The V-shape of the model is formed when the left side of the V represents the various stages of the software development process such as requirement gathering, design, coding, and unit testing while the right side represents the testing stages that correspond to each development stage.

Each phase in the development process is associated with a corresponding testing phase, and the V-model emphasizes the importance of testing at each stage of the development process. This approach ensures that defects are caught and fixed early in the development process which can help reduce the cost of fixing defects later on.

The V-model is often used in industries with strict regulatory requirements such as aerospace, defense, and medical devices where the software must meet specific standards and requirements.

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51. What are test deliverables?

Test deliverables are also known as test artifacts referring to the collection of documents and tools/components that are provided to stakeholders during the software development life cycle (SDLC). These deliverables are created and maintained to support the testing process. Throughout different phases of the SDLC, many specific deliverables are generated which are outlined as follows:

Before the Testing Phase:

  • Test Plans Document: This document outlines the overall strategy and approach for testing including objectives, scope, test levels, and resources required.

  • Test Cases Documents: These documents detail the specific test scenarios, inputs, and steps to be executed to validate the software under test.

  • Test Design Specifications: These specifications provide a comprehensive overview of the test architecture including test environment setup, test data requirements, and test tool selection.

During the Testing Phase:

  • Test Scripts: These scripts contain the sequence of actions and commands to be executed by testers or automated testing tools to perform specific test cases.

  • Simulators: Simulators are used to replicate real-world conditions or system behavior that cannot be easily replicated for testing purposes.

  • Test Data: This includes the data sets/ inputs and configurations used to execute test cases and validate the software.

  • Test Traceability Matrix: This matrix establishes a link between requirements, test cases and test scripts to ensure that all requirements are adequately covered by tests.

  • Error Logs and Execution Logs: These logs capture any errors or exceptions encountered during test execution along with detailed information about the test environment, test data, and system state.

After the Testing Phase:

  • Test Results/Reports: These reports summarize the outcome of the testing activities including the status of test execution, identified defects, and overall test coverage.

  • Defect Report: This report provides a detailed description of each identified defect including its severity, priority, steps to reproduce, and any additional supporting information.

  • Installation/Test Procedures Guidelines: These guidelines outline the step-by-step instructions for installing, configuring and executing the software in a test environment.

  • Release Notes: These notes provide information about the tested software version including any known issues, resolved defects, and other relevant details for stakeholders.

It is essential to ensure that all test deliverables are plagiarism-free and accurately represent the testing activities and outcomes to effectively communicate with project stakeholders.

52. What do you understand by the term Object Repository?

In software testing, an Object Repository is a centralized location or database that stores information about the various objects or elements of an application’s user interface (UI). It is used in automated testing frameworks to store and manage the properties and attributes of UI elements, such as buttons, text fields, checkboxes, and menus.

The main purpose of an Object Repository is to provide a convenient and efficient way to identify and interact with UI elements during test automation. It acts as a repository of reusable objects which allows testers or automation engineers to access and manipulate these objects without having to repeatedly define them in each test script.

The Object Repository typically includes the following information about each UI element:

  • Object Name: A unique identifier or name given to the object within the repository.

  • Object Type: The type or class of the UI element such as button, text box, or dropdown list.

  • Object Properties: The specific properties or attributes of the object that can be used to locate and interact with it such as ID, name, XPath, or CSS selector.

  • Object Methods: The actions or operations that can be performed on the object such as clicking, entering text, selecting options, or verifying its state.

By using an Object Repository, testers can achieve better test maintenance and reusability. Instead of hard-coding the object details directly into the test scripts, they can simply reference the objects from the repository and this makes it easier to update or modify object properties in one central location without affecting multiple test scripts.

Additionally, an Object Repository promotes a modular and organized approach to test automation. Testers can build a library of objects that represent different UI components and then combine them to create test cases. This modular approach simplifies test script creation and maintenance as changes in the UI can be accommodated by updating the corresponding objects in the repository.

Overall, an Object Repository helps streamline test automation efforts by providing a structured and reusable way to manage and interact with UI elements, enhancing efficiency, maintainability, and scalability in the testing process.

53. What is an iterative model?

In software testing, the iterative model aligns with the iterative development process and follows a similar approach. The testing activities are conducted in parallel with the development iterations with the goal of validating the software’s functionality, performance and quality throughout the iterative cycles.

Here’s how the iterative model is applied in software testing:

  • Testing Planning: The testing process begins with planning where the testing goals and test strategy are defined and then the testing team collaborates with the development team to understand the iteration goals and requirements.

  • Test Design: Test design activities are carried out based on the requirements and changes introduced in the current iteration. Test cases and test scenarios are created to cover the new functionality, as well as any existing functionality that might be affected by the changes.

  • Test Execution: The test cases developed during the test design phase are executed to verify the software’s behavior and identify defects. Testers closely monitor the execution process and log any issues or bugs encountered.

  • Defect Reporting and Resolution: Testers report defects discovered during the test execution phase and sent to the development team and then the development team reviews the defects, identifies their root causes and resolves them. The fixed components are retested to ensure proper resolution.

  • Test Evaluation and Feedback: At the end of each iteration, the testing team evaluates the test results and provides feedback to the development team and this feedback may include suggestions for improvements, areas of concern or changes needed for subsequent iterations.

  • Regression Testing: As new features and changes are introduced in each iteration, regression testing is performed to ensure that the previously implemented functionality remains intact and unaffected as this helps prevent regression issues and maintains the overall stability of the software.

  • Continuous Improvement: The testing process evolves throughout the iterative cycles based on the feedback received from stakeholders, defect patterns, and lessons learned. Testers refine their testing techniques, update test cases and incorporate feedback to enhance the testing process’s effectiveness.

The iterative model in software testing allows for early detection of defects, prompt bug fixing, and continuous validation of the evolving software product. By aligning testing activities with development iterations, it promotes collaboration, timely feedback, and iterative refinement of the software’s quality. This iterative testing approach ensures that the software meets the desired quality standards and requirements as it evolves through successive iterations.

54. What is risk management?

Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks and taking steps to minimize, monitor, and control the impact of those risks on a project or business. It involves analyzing potential risks, estimating the likelihood and potential impact of each risk, and developing strategies to address them. The goal of risk management is to reduce uncertainty and potential harm while also identifying opportunities for improvement and growth. Effective risk management helps organizations make better decisions and avoid costly mistakes resulting in improved overall performance.

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55. What is accessibility testing?

Accessibility testing is a type of testing that ensures that a software application or a website can be used by people with disabilities including those who are visually impaired/hearing impaired/physically disabled or have cognitive impairments. The goal of accessibility testing is to ensure that everyone regardless of their ability can use and access the software application or website. You can see this feature in your mobile setting or in the toggle bar.

Accessibility testing includes evaluating the application or website against various accessibility standards such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) published by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The testing process may involve using assistive technologies such as screen readers, magnifiers, or keyboard-only navigation to simulate the experience of users with disabilities.

Accessibility testing also involves checking for accessibility issues such as missing or incorrect alternative text for images, inadequate color contrast, insufficient keyboard navigation options, and inaccessible forms and controls. By performing accessibility testing, organizations can ensure that their software applications and websites are accessible to a wider audience and comply with legal and regulatory requirements related to accessibility.

56. What is internationalization testing?

Internationalization testing is a type of testing that checks if a software application can be easily adapted to different languages and regions without any issues. The primary goal of internationalization testing is to ensure that the application is designed and developed to be easily localized for different markets and cultures.

Internationalization testing covers a wide range of areas such as language support, date and time formats, currency symbols, and user interface design. It involves testing the application’s compatibility with different locales, scripts, and input methods.

The testing process involves checking the application’s functionality, user interface, and content with different languages and regions. The testers verify if the application can handle different characters and special symbols while also checking for non-English alphabets.

Overall, internationalization testing is critical for ensuring that the application can be adapted to different markets which helps to expand its user base and increase revenue for the organization.

57. What is stress testing?

Stress testing is a type of testing that helps determine the stability and robustness of a system under extreme conditions. This is like pushing the system to its limit and beyond to see how it responds. Our main purpose of stress testing is to identify the breaking points of a system and understand how it behaves under high pressure.

Think of it as a test of the system’s resilience and ability to handle intense pressure. Stress testing can help identify potential bottlenecks, issues with data flow, memory leaks, and other performance issues that might cause a system failure. This is important because it allows us to improve the system’s performance, prevent crashes, and maintain the system’s reliability even under extreme conditions.

58. What is vulnerability testing?

As the name suggests, vulnerability testing refers to a type of security testing that is performed to identify vulnerabilities or weaknesses in a system. Our objective while performing vulnerability testing is to detect security flaws that can be exploited by attackers to gain unauthorized access to a system or to compromise its integrity or availability. Vulnerability testing is done using various tools and techniques to simulate attacks and identify potential vulnerabilities in the system. The results of the testing are used to prioritize and remediate vulnerabilities resulting in ultimately improving the overall security posture of the system.

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59. What is penetration testing?

Penetration testing refers to security testing that involves testing the system’s ability to withstand real-world attacks and unauthorized or illegal access attempts.

Testers can conduct penetration testing using many techniques such as:

  • Network scanning

  • Vulnerability scanning

  • Exploitation testing

Our goal to do penetration testing is to identify security weaknesses and also to evaluate the system’s ability to prevent and respond to them.

60. What is the difference between load testing and stress testing?

Let’s understand the differences between load testing and stress testing based on five differentiating criteria which are as follows:

  • Purpose: The purpose of load testing is to test the system’s behavior and performance under normal and peak load conditions while the purpose of stress testing is to evaluate the system’s behavior and performance under extreme conditions beyond its operational limits.

  • Test Conditions: Load testing is performed by simulating realistic usage conditions to evaluate the system’s ability to handle the expected load while stress testing is performed by simulating unrealistic usage conditions to evaluate the system’s ability to handle unexpected high loads.

  • Test Duration: Load testing is typically performed over an extended period of time from a few hours to several days to simulate the normal usage patterns of users while stress testing is performed for a short duration usually for a few minutes to evaluate how the system behaves under extreme conditions.

  • Performance Metrics: Load testing primarily focuses on measuring the system’s response time, throughput, and resource utilization under normal and peak load conditions while stress testing focuses on measuring the system’s ability to recover from crashes and errors, its response time, and the maximum load it can handle before failure.

  • Test Data: The test data in load testing is based on realistic usage scenarios while in stress testing the test data is based on unrealistic usage scenarios that push the system to its limits.

In short, we can conclude that load testing and stress testing are both performance testing techniques but differ in their purpose, test conditions, duration, performance metrics, and test data. Load testing evaluates the system’s ability to handle expected loads while stress testing evaluates the system’s ability to handle unexpected high loads beyond its operational limits.

61. What is end-to-end testing?

End-to-end testing is a software testing technique used to test the flow of an application from start to end. The objective of end-to-end testing is to validate the behavior of the entire system as per the business requirements. In simple words, we can say that it involves testing the software system as a whole rather than testing each individual component separately.

In end-to-end testing, testers simulate real user scenarios and test the application’s functionality across various modules, subsystems, and interfaces. It includes testing of user interface, APIs, database, server, and other system components to ensure that they work together seamlessly.

End-to-end testing is typically performed after unit testing, integration testing and system testing have been completed. It can be done manually or with the help of automated testing tools. The main benefits of end-to-end testing are that it helps to uncover defects or issues that may not be caught by other testing methods and helps to ensure that the application meets the business requirements and functions as intended in a real-world environment.

62. What is a code review?

Code review is a process of thoroughly evaluating the code on different aspects to detect errors and potential bugs during the software development cycle. The main objective is to identify inconsistencies and mistakes to improve the code quality. Peers or dedicated reviewers assess the code and provide feedback on areas that require improvement. This process helps in enhancing developers’ coding skills and ensures that the software meets the required quality standards.

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63. What is a risk assessment?

Risk assessment is the process of identifying and evaluating potential risks associated with a project or system. It involves analyzing the likelihood and impact of identified risks and determining the level of risk posed by each. The assessment can be qualitative or quantitative depending on the nature of the risks and the available data. The purpose of risk assessment is to inform risk management decisions and develop strategies to mitigate or eliminate identified risks beforehand to save time and effort.

Software Testing Interview Questions for Experienced

64. What are the main features of sanity testing?

The main features of sanity testing are as follows:

  • Quick and shallow testing: It verifies whether the most important functions of an application are working as expected or not.

  • Focus on major issues: Focused on major issues that can prevent the application from functioning, rather than on minor issues.

  • Performed after build: Usually performed after a new build of the software has been deployed to ensure that the basic functionalities are working as expected.

  • Limited scope: Scope is limited to the critical and most important functionalities of the application.

  • High-level testing: It can be performed manually or through automation tools.

Overall we can say that sanity testing is a quick, limited-scope, and high-level testing activity that focuses on major issues to ensure that the critical and most important functionalities of an application are working as expected.

65. What are the different types of test coverage techniques?

There are various types of test coverage techniques used in software testing to ensure that all code paths are executed and all potential defects are discovered.

Some of the commonly used test coverage techniques are as follows:

  • Statement Coverage: This one ensures that each statement in the source code is executed at least once during testing.

  • Branch Coverage: It ensures that each branch in the source code is executed at least once during testing. A branch is a decision point in the code where the program can take one of two or more paths.

  • Path Coverage: It ensures that every possible path through the code is executed at least once during testing. This is the most comprehensive coverage technique, but it is also the most time-consuming.

  • Condition Coverage: It ensures that every condition in the code is executed at least once during testing. A condition is a logical expression that evaluates to either true or false.

  • Decision Coverage: It ensures that every decision in the code is executed at least once during testing. A decision is a point in the code where the program can take one of two or more paths based on a condition.

  • Function and Method Coverage: It ensures that every function or method in the code is executed at least once during testing. It is especially useful for testing libraries or reusable code.

By using these test coverage techniques, testers can identify potential defects and ensure that all code paths are executed and thus resulting in better-quality software.

66. What do you understand about the Workbench Concept?

In software testing, a workbench refers to a dedicated environment or setup that provides testers with the necessary tools and infrastructure to perform their testing activities effectively. It is a controlled and isolated environment specifically designed for testing purposes.

The workbench in software testing typically includes the following components:

  • Testing Tools: The workbench is equipped with various testing tools that facilitate different types of testing activities. These tools may include test management tools, defect tracking systems, test automation frameworks, performance testing tools, security testing tools and more. The selection of tools depends on the specific testing requirements and objectives.

  • Test Data: The workbench contains a repository of test data that is used to create test scenarios and execute test cases. This may include sample data, production-like data or synthetic data generated specifically for testing purposes. Having a diverse and representative set of test data helps ensure comprehensive test coverage.

  • Test Environments: The workbench provides different test environments to simulate real-world scenarios. These environments can include development, staging and production-like environments as well as specific configurations or setups required for testing. Testers can deploy the software under test in these environments to evaluate its behavior and performance under various conditions.

  • Test Hardware: The workbench includes the necessary hardware resources to support testing activities. This may involve physical devices, virtual machines or cloud-based infrastructure to replicate the target platforms on which the software will be deployed.

  • Test Documentation: The workbench may include relevant test documentation such as test plans, test cases, test scripts, and test data specifications. This documentation helps testers understand the testing requirements, execute test cases accurately and track the progress and results of testing.

  • Test Execution Environment: The workbench provides a controlled environment for executing tests. It ensures that the test environment is isolated from other production environments to prevent any impact on live systems which allows testers to conduct testing activities without interfering with the operational systems.

  • Collaboration and Communication Tools: The workbench may also include collaboration and communication tools to facilitate interaction between testers, developers and other stakeholders. These tools can include project management software, instant messaging platforms or issue-tracking systems that enable efficient communication and information sharing.

The purpose of having a dedicated workbench in software testing is to create an optimized and controlled environment that supports efficient and effective testing activities. It ensures that testers have access to the necessary resources, tools and infrastructure needed to conduct comprehensive testing, identify defects and ensure the overall quality of the software being tested.

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67. What are the tasks involved in the Workbench Concept?

Every workbench typically consists of five tasks that include:

  • Input — Collecting relevant information and data required for the task.

  • Execute — Performing the task as outlined in the workbench.

  • Check — Verifying the task’s output to ensure it meets the expected results.

  • Production output — The final output of the task that is ready for delivery to the customer.

  • Rework — Fix any issues or errors identified during the check phase to ensure the task meets the expected quality standards.

69. What are the different HTTP codes you should know while working in software testing?

HTTP status codes are a crucial part of software testing as they help identify and troubleshoot issues with web applications.

Here are some of the most common HTTP status codes that you should know:

  • 1xx (Informational): These status codes indicate that the request has been received and the server is continuing to process it.

  • 2xx (Successful): This class of status codes indicates that the request was successfully received, understood, and accepted.

  • 3xx (Redirection): This class of status codes indicates that further action is needed to complete the request.

  • 4xx (Client Error): This class of status codes indicates that the client’s request was incorrect or could not be understood by the server.

  • 5xx (Server Error): This class of status codes indicates that there was an error on the server’s side that prevented it from fulfilling the request.

It is important to know these HTTP status codes as they help testers and developers identify and fix issues that arise during the testing and development of web applications.

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70. What is defect cascading?

Defect cascading is also known as defect propagation. It is a phenomenon in software testing where one defect triggers or leads to the discovery of multiple additional defects. In other words, it is a situation where a single defect can cause other defects to surface or occur. This is because different parts of the software system are interconnected and dependent on each other. Therefore, a defect in one part of the system can cause other parts of the system to malfunction or not function as expected.

For example, let’s say a developer introduces a defect in the code for a particular feature. When testers test the feature, they may discover the defect and report it. However, during further testing, they may also find that the defect has caused other related features to fail or not work as intended, leading to the discovery of additional defects.

Defect cascading can be challenging for testers to manage because it can lead to a larger number of defects being discovered and reported than originally anticipated. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly test the entire system and all related features to minimize the occurrence of defect cascading.

71. A defect that could have been removed during the initial stage is later removed. What effect does this have on the cost?

If a defect that could have been removed during the initial stage is later discovered and removed then it typically results in a higher cost. This is because the later a defect is discovered in the software development lifecycle, the more expensive it becomes to fix it.

If a defect is detected early on during the development process then it can be fixed quickly and at a lower cost. However, if it goes undetected and is found later then usually it requires extensive rework which can be time-consuming and costly. Additionally, the defect may have caused other defects or dependencies which can further increase the cost and effort required to fix it.

Hence it is always recommended to detect and fix defects as early as possible in the development lifecycle to minimize costs and ensure the timely delivery of quality software.

72. Why are developers not supposed to test the software they wrote?

Developers shouldn’t test the software they wrote because they tend to have a biased perspective toward their code. They may overlook certain bugs or defects due to their familiarity with the code or assume that certain functionality is working as intended without thoroughly testing it. Additionally, developers may not have the same level of expertise in testing methodologies and techniques as dedicated software testers which can result in a lower quality of testing. It is important to have an independent and unbiased perspective in testing to ensure that all defects and bugs are identified and resolved before the software is released to the end users.

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73. What do you understand by confirmation testing?

Confirmation testing is also known as regression testing and it is a software testing technique that is used to verify that the changes made to a software application did not introduce new defects or negatively impact the existing functionality.

Confirmation testing involves executing a set of tests that were previously passed to ensure that they still pass after the changes have been made. This is done to ensure that the software remains stable and functional throughout the development process.

Confirmation testing is typically performed after a defect has been identified and fixed or after a new feature has been added to the software. It helps to ensure that the changes did not affect the behavior of the software in any way that would negatively impact its performance or usability.

74. What is a security audit?

In security audits, as the name suggests we check the system’s security features and weaknesses thoroughly. Our main goal while conducting security audits is to evaluate the system’s security posture and to identify security risks and weaknesses and a typical security audit involves a deep and complete analysis of the system’s security policies and controls. Overall we can say that it is an evaluation of the system’s physical and logical security measures.

75. What is the difference between functional and non-functional testing?

We know that functional testing and non-functional testing are two types of testing performed on software applications and they differ on many points such as in their objectives, scope, approach, testing tools used, and user experience. Now let’s focus on each of the points individually.

  • Objective: Our main objective of functional testing is to ensure that the software application meets the functional requirements and performs the intended functions without any errors or issues while the latter is to test the software application for its performance, scalability, and usability.

  • Scope: Functional testing focuses on testing the features and functionality of the software application whereas the latter focuses on testing the performance, security, compatibility, and other non-functional aspects of the application.

  • Approach: Functional testing is typically carried out through test cases that are designed to cover each function of the application while the latter is carried out through various testing techniques like load testing, stress testing, and security testing.

  • Testing tools: We can perform functional testing using automated testing tools that are designed to test the software application’s functionality while the latter requires specialized tools and techniques that are designed to test the non-functional aspects of the application.

  • User experience: Our focus while doing functional testing is on ensuring that the software application meets the user’s functional requirements while the latter is focused on testing the software application’s performance, security, and usability which all contribute to the overall user experience.

In summary, we can say that functional testing is focused on ensuring that the software application performs the intended functions without errors while the latter is focused on testing the software application’s performance, security, and other non-functional aspects. Both types of testing are important for ensuring that the software application meets the user’s needs and expectations.

76. What are the main components of the defect report format?

The main components of a defect report format which is also known as a bug report typically include the following information:

  • Defect Title/Summary: A concise and descriptive title that summarizes the nature of the defect. It should provide a clear indication of the issue being reported.

  • Defect ID/Number: A unique identifier assigned to the defect for tracking and reference purposes. This helps in organizing and managing the reported issues effectively.

  • Defect Description: A detailed description of the defect including the observed behavior, expected behavior, and any error messages or logs encountered. The description should be clear and specific to help developers understand and reproduce the issue.

  • Steps to Reproduce: A step-by-step explanation of the actions or inputs required to reproduce the defect. This helps developers recreate the issue in their testing environment to understand and investigate the root cause effectively.

  • Actual and Expected Results: The actual outcome observed when reproducing the defect and the expected outcome that was anticipated. This highlights the deviation from the expected behavior, assisting developers in identifying the source of the problem.

  • Environment Details: Information about the specific environment in which the defect was encountered. This includes details such as the operating system, hardware, software versions, browsers, and any other relevant configurations. Environment details help in isolating potential environmental factors that may contribute to the defect.

  • Severity and Priority: The severity indicates the impact of the defect on the system’s functionality or performance. It is typically classified as high, medium, or low, reflecting the degree of impact while priority, on the other hand, denotes the order in which the defect should be addressed and fixed, considering factors such as business impact, user impact, and urgency.

  • Attachments or Screenshots: Supporting attachments or screenshots that provide visual evidence of the defect can be included. This aids in better understanding and visualizing the issue especially when the defect involves graphical or visual anomalies.

  • Test Case Reference: If applicable, the reference to the specific test case or test scenario that was being executed when the defect was identified. This helps establish a connection between the defect and the corresponding test case and thus aiding in traceability and test coverage analysis.

  • Reported By: The name or identification of the person who reported the defect. This allows for communication and follow-up if further clarification or additional information is required.

Including these key components in a defect report format ensures that the reported issues are documented comprehensively and in a standardized manner. This facilitates efficient communication, tracking, and resolution of defects by the development and testing teams.

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77. What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?

Static testing and dynamic testing are two types of testing approaches used in software testing. Here are some differences between them:

  • Definition: Static testing involves testing the software without executing the code while dynamic testing involves testing the software by executing the code.

  • Focus: Static testing focuses on the software artifacts such as requirements, design documents, and code while dynamic testing focuses on the behavior of the software during runtime.

  • Timing: Static testing is done during the early stages of the software development life cycle (SDLC) such as requirements gathering and design phases while dynamic testing is done during the later stages of the SDLC such as testing and deployment phases.

  • Tools: Static testing is often done manually or with the help of tools such as review checklists while dynamic testing requires tools such as automated testing frameworks, test management tools, and performance testing tools.

  • Coverage: Static testing is used to ensure the completeness and correctness of software artifacts while dynamic testing is used to measure the software’s functional and non-functional requirements such as performance, security, and usability.

  • Outcome: The outcome of static testing is usually a list of defects and issues that need to be addressed while the outcome of dynamic testing is a report on the quality of the software, including the number of defects found and their severity.

In summary, both static and dynamic testing approaches are essential for ensuring the quality of software. While static testing focuses on the software artifacts, dynamic testing focuses on the behavior of the software during runtime. By using both approaches together, software development teams can ensure that their software is reliable, functional, and meets the needs of their users.

78. What is the difference between system testing and acceptance testing?

Let’s understand the difference between system testing and acceptance testing in five key points:

  • System testing is performed by the testing team to ensure that the entire system or application works as intended whereas acceptance testing is performed by the end users or the customer to verify that the system meets their requirements and expectations.

  • System testing focuses on functional and non-functional aspects of the system such as performance, security, and usability while acceptance testing focuses on user requirements and business processes.

  • System testing is usually conducted in a controlled testing environment while acceptance testing is typically conducted in a real-world environment that simulates the user’s actual usage of the system.

  • System testing is performed before the acceptance testing to ensure that the system is ready for release while acceptance testing is performed after the system testing to ensure that the system meets the end-users expectations.

  • The objective of system testing is to identify defects and issues in the system while the objective of acceptance testing is to verify that the system meets the user’s needs and requirements.

79. What is the difference between quality assurance and quality control?

Let’s understand the differences between Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) in detail based on a few important points:

  • Approach: Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on preventing defects from occurring in the first place while quality control is a product-oriented approach that focuses on identifying and fixing defects after they have occurred.

  • Focus: Quality assurance is focused on creating a quality management system that ensures that the product meets the customer’s requirements while quality control is focused on finding defects in the product and fixing them.

  • Responsibility: Quality assurance is typically performed by the quality assurance team while quality control is performed by the testing team.

  • Type: Quality assurance is a proactive approach that involves creating standards and processes to ensure quality while quality control is a reactive approach that involves detecting and correcting defects.

  • Timing: Quality assurance is a continuous process that is applied throughout the software development lifecycle while quality control is typically performed at the end of the development process.

80. What is the difference between verification and validation?

Let’s understand the difference between verification and validation based on a few points:

  • Definition: Verification is the process of ensuring that the software being developed meets its specified requirements and adheres to established standards and guidelines while Validation is the process of ensuring that the software meets the needs and expectations of its intended users.

  • Timing: Verification is typically done early in the software development process, during the design and development phases while validation is typically done later in the process, during the testing and deployment phases.

  • Focus: Verification is focused on ensuring that the software meets its requirements and specifications while validation is focused on ensuring that the software meets the needs and expectations of its users.

  • Methods: Verification is often done through techniques such as code reviews, static analysis, and unit testing while validation is often done through techniques such as user acceptance testing, beta testing, and usability testing.

  • Responsibility: Verification is often the responsibility of the development team while validation is often the responsibility of the testing or quality assurance team.

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81. What is the difference between static and dynamic analysis?

Static analysis and dynamic analysis are two different techniques used in software testing. The main differences between the two are as follows:

  • Definition: Static analysis is a technique in which the software is analyzed without actually executing it, while dynamic analysis is a technique in which the software is analyzed while it is being executed.

  • Purpose: The purpose of static analysis is to identify defects and issues in the source code, design, and other related documents while the purpose of dynamic analysis is to identify defects and issues in the behavior of the software when it is executed.

  • Time: Static analysis is done during the early stages of the software development life cycle while dynamic analysis is done during the later stages of the life cycle after the code has been written.

  • Tools: Static analysis is usually done using specialized software tools such as code analyzers while dynamic analysis is usually done using specialized testing tools such as test automation frameworks.

  • Approach: Static analysis is a proactive approach to software testing as it helps identify defects before the software is executed while dynamic analysis is a reactive approach as it identifies defects after the software has been executed.

Overall, we can conclude that static analysis is used to detect defects and issues in the software design and code before the software is executed while dynamic analysis is used to detect defects and issues in the software behavior while it is being executed. Both techniques are essential for ensuring the quality and reliability of software.

82. What is test closure?

Test closure is the final stage of the software testing process. It involves evaluating the testing process to identify areas for improvement and documenting the results of the testing process. Test closure also involves generating a final report that summarizes the testing process including the testing objectives, test cases executed, defects found, and recommendations for future testing.

83. What is test automation?

Test automation refers to the use of specialized software tools to execute tests on a software application automatically rather than manually. The primary objective of test automation is to simplify and accelerate the testing process and minimize human intervention resulting in accurate results in a short time.

Automated testing involves the use of scripting languages and tools to create and execute automated test cases. These test cases can be run repeatedly and consistently ensuring that any defects or issues in the software are caught early in the development cycle.

Test automation can be used to test various aspects of software including functionality, performance, security, and usability. It can also be applied to various types of testing such as unit testing, integration testing, regression testing, and acceptance testing.

Overall, test automation offers many benefits to the software development process, such as reducing testing time, improving test coverage, and increasing overall software quality.

84. What is the difference between positive and negative testing?

Let’s see the major differences between both types of testing based on the following points:

  • Objective: Positive testing is designed to test the software’s ability to handle valid inputs and produce the expected output while negative testing is designed to test the software’s ability to handle invalid inputs and produce an appropriate response.

  • Approach: Positive testing focuses on testing the software’s expected behavior under normal conditions while negative testing seeks to identify defects and vulnerabilities in the software’s response to abnormal or unexpected conditions.

  • Test Data: Positive testing requires valid input data that represents the expected usage of the software while negative testing requires invalid or unexpected input data that challenges the software’s ability to handle unusual conditions.

  • Test Coverage: Positive testing ensures that the software meets its functional requirements while negative testing verifies the software’s ability to detect and handle unexpected or invalid input.

  • Result: In positive testing, the software is expected to produce the expected output while in negative testing, the software may produce unexpected output or error messages or even crashes as a result of the invalid input. The goal of negative testing is to ensure that the software responds appropriately to these unexpected situations.

In short, we can conclude that both positive and negative testing are important testing techniques that help to ensure the quality of the software application. A good software testing strategy should include both positive and negative testing to provide comprehensive coverage of the software application.

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85. What is a test harness?

In software testing, a test harness or automated test framework is a collection of tools and drivers that are used to facilitate and automate test execution. It typically includes a test library, test cases, and other supporting materials needed to compile and run tests. The test harness helps to generate reports on test execution and outcomes.

Another term for a test harness is an automated test framework which is a set of software and test data designed to test a particular component or module under various circumstances while monitoring its behavior and results. Test harnesses are particularly useful in integration testing where test stubs are used to simulate components that have not yet been developed or integrated into the software. By using a test harness, testers can ensure that the software works correctly under a variety of conditions and with different inputs thus improving the overall quality of the software.

86. What is test management?

Test management involves the planning, design, execution, and reporting of software testing activities. It encompasses all aspects of the testing process including test planning, test case development, test execution, and defect tracking. Test management also involves coordinating testing activities with other teams involved in software development such as developers and project managers.

87. What is test estimation?

In the software testing field, test estimation involves estimating the time, effort, and resources required to complete software testing activities. Test estimation is important for project planning and budgeting and is usually based on factors such as the complexity of the software being tested and the scope of testing while keeping track of available resources.

88. What is risk-based testing?

Risk-based testing is an approach to software testing that prioritizes testing efforts based on the identified risks associated with the software system under test. The objective of risk-based testing is to allocate testing resources effectively by focusing on high-risk areas that have the potential to cause significant damage or loss. It involves identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing risks and then designing test cases to cover those risks. The benefits we reap from risk-based testing include better test coverage and reduced testing time and cost resulting in improved software quality.

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89. What are the different coverage techniques in software testing?

In software testing, coverage techniques are used to ensure that different aspects of the software under test are adequately tested. These techniques help assess the completeness and effectiveness of the testing process by identifying which parts of the software have been exercised or examined.

Here are some common coverage techniques used in software testing:

  • Statement Coverage: This technique focuses on ensuring that each statement in the source code of the software is executed at least once during testing and aims to verify that all code statements have been exercised and can help identify potential logic errors or missing functionality.

  • Branch Coverage: Branch coverage aims to test all possible decision outcomes or branches in the software’s control flow. It ensures that both the true and false branches of conditional statements (such as if-else statements) are executed during testing and this technique also helps identify potential issues related to decision-making logic.

  • Path Coverage: Path coverage aims to test all possible execution paths through the software’s code and involves considering all possible combinations of branches and loops to ensure that every path is traversed at least once. Path coverage helps uncover complex logic errors and ensures thorough testing of the software.

  • Condition Coverage: Condition coverage focuses on testing all possible conditions within a decision statement. It aims to ensure that each condition within a complex conditional statement such as a compound logical expression is evaluated to both true and false values. Condition coverage helps identify potential issues related to individual conditions within complex decision statements.

  • Function and Method Coverage: Function and method coverage aims to ensure that all functions or methods in the software are called and executed during testing. It verifies that all parts of the software are exercised including function or method entry points, return values, and any error-handling mechanisms.

  • Boundary Coverage: Boundary coverage focuses on testing the boundaries and limits of input and output values and aims to validate the software’s behavior when it operates near the minimum and maximum values or boundary conditions. This technique helps uncover issues related to boundary validations, edge cases, and off-by-one errors.

  • Error Handling Coverage: Error handling coverage ensures that the software’s error handling mechanisms such as exception handling, error messages, and recovery processes are tested thoroughly. It aims to identify potential issues related to error handling including unhandled exceptions, improper error messages, or failure to recover from errors gracefully.

  • Interface Coverage: Interface coverage focuses on testing the interactions between different software components or modules and ensures that all interfaces whether internal or external, are tested to verify proper communication and data exchange. Interface coverage helps uncover integration issues and interoperability problems.

These coverage techniques can be combined or used independently depending on the specific testing goals and requirements. Employing a combination of coverage techniques helps ensure comprehensive testing and improves the overall quality of the software.

90. What is a waterfall model?

The waterfall model is a software development process that follows a sequential or linear approach to software development. In this model, the development process is divided into a series of phases that must be completed linearly before moving on to the next phase.

The phases of the waterfall model are typically defined as:

  • Requirements gathering and analysis

  • System design

  • Implementation

  • Testing

  • Deployment

  • Maintenance

Each phase of the waterfall model is completed before moving on to the next phase and the output of each phase becomes the input for the next phase. The waterfall model is a highly structured approach to software development that is often used in projects where the requirements are well-understood and the scope of the project is well-defined. However, it can be less flexible than other development models as changes to the requirements or design may be difficult to implement once the project has moved beyond the requirements phase.

91. What is an agile model?

The agile model is a software development approach that emphasizes collaboration, flexibility, and customer satisfaction. It involves iterative and incremental development cycles where requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams.

The agile model values individuals and interactions, working software, customer collaboration, response to change over processes and tools, comprehensive documentation, contract negotiation, and following a plan. It emphasizes delivering working software in shorter iterations which typically range from 2 to 4 weeks and welcomes changes in requirements throughout the development process.

The Agile model involves breaking down the development process into smaller cycles called sprints which include planning, designing, coding, testing, and delivery. Each sprint results in a working software increment that can be reviewed and evaluated by the customer and stakeholders. This allows for continuous feedback and improvement throughout the development process.

The Agile model is often used in software development projects where requirements and specifications are likely to change and where the focus is on delivering a functional product quickly while maintaining high quality and customer satisfaction.

92. What is Showstopper Defect?

A showstopper defect also known as a critical defect or a blocking issue is a severe software defect that has a significant impact on the functionality of the system. It is a defect that prevents further testing or hinders the system from being used in production. Showstopper defects are critical issues that need to be addressed before the software can be considered ready for release or deployment.

Characteristics of a showstopper defect include:

  • Complete Blockage: A showstopper defect completely blocks or prevents the normal functioning of a feature, module, or entire system. It renders the affected functionality unusable or causes the system to crash or malfunction.

  • High Severity: Showstopper defects have a high severity level as they significantly impact the core functionality or critical operations of the software. They may lead to data loss, security vulnerabilities, or serious disruptions in the user experience.

  • Widespread Impact: Showstopper defects have a broad impact, affecting multiple users, processes, or critical business operations. They can hamper the software’s ability to meet its intended purpose or fulfill user requirements.

  • Reproducible and Consistent: Showstopper defects are reproducible and consistent in nature. They can be reliably triggered or encountered by following specific steps or conditions thus making it easier to identify and address them.

  • Lack of Workaround: Showstopper defects generally do not have temporary solutions to mitigate their impact and therefore they require a direct fix or resolution to restore the affected functionality to an acceptable state.

When a showstopper defect is identified, it usually receives immediate attention and becomes the highest priority for resolution. Development and testing teams work together to investigate the root cause, develop a fix, and thoroughly test the resolution before it is applied to the software. The aim is to resolve the showstopper defect promptly to ensure that the software can function as intended and meet the required quality standards.

Identifying and addressing showstopper defects is crucial in software development and testing as their presence can significantly impact user satisfaction, business operations, and the overall success of the software. Timely detection, reporting, and resolution of showstopper defects help ensure that the software is stable, reliable, and suitable for production use.

93. What is a spiral model?

The Spiral model is a software development lifecycle model that combines elements of both iterative and waterfall models. It emphasizes risk analysis, iterative development, and constant feedback to accommodate changing requirements and mitigate potential risks. The Spiral model consists of four key phases:

  • Planning phase

  • Objective Setting: The project’s goal, requirements, and constraints are defined in this phase.

  • Risk Assessment: Potential risks associated with the project such as technical, schedule, or budget risks are identified and analyzed and then strategies to mitigate or manage these risks are developed.

  • Feasibility Study: A preliminary investigation is conducted to evaluate the project’s feasibility in terms of technical, economic, and operational aspects and this helps determine if the project is viable and worth pursuing.

  • Risk Analysis phase

  • Risk Identification: In this phase, potential risks are identified based on the project’s goal, requirements, and constraints. Risks may include technical challenges, resource constraints, changing requirements, or market uncertainties.

  • Risk Assessment: The identified risks are assessed in terms of their probability of occurrence, the potential impact on the project, and the effort required to mitigate them and here risks are prioritized based on their severity and likelihood.

  • Risk Resolution: Strategies are developed to address and mitigate identified risks which may involve adopting alternative technologies, adjusting project plans, conducting feasibility studies, or incorporating contingency plans.

  • Engineering and Development phase:

  • Iterative Development: This phase involves multiple iterations of the development process where the software is incrementally designed, implemented, and tested. Each iteration includes specific goals, requirements, and a defined set of deliverables.

  • Requirements Elicitation: Detailed requirements are gathered from stakeholders, analyzed, and prioritized which serve as a basis for the iterative development process.

  • Prototyping: Prototypes are created to validate and refine the software’s functionality, design, and user experience. Feedback from stakeholders is incorporated to enhance the software’s quality and meet evolving needs.

  • Evaluation and Deployment phase:

  • Customer Evaluation: The software developed in the previous phase is evaluated by the customer or end users. Their feedback is gathered and used to refine the software, address any issues or deficiencies, and make necessary modifications.

  • Deployment and Delivery: The tested and validated software is deployed or released to the end users and this may involve installation, configuration, and user training of the software. Maintenance and support processes are established to address future updates and bug fixes.

The Spiral model repeats these phases in a cyclic manner allowing for continuous improvement, feedback incorporation, and risk management. Each iteration builds upon the previous ones and thus gradually refines the software until it meets the desired goals and quality standards. The Spiral model offers flexibility, adaptability, and a systematic approach to software development, particularly in complex and large-scale projects where risks and requirements may evolve over time.

94. What is scrum?

Scrum is an agile software development framework that focuses on teamwork, communication, and iterative development. It involves a set of practices and ceremonies such as sprint planning, daily stand-up meetings, sprint reviews, and sprint retrospectives. The development process is divided into short time periods called sprints which are typically two to four weeks long. The main advantage of using Scrum is that it provides transparency, flexibility, and adaptability to changing requirements.

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95. What is continuous integration?

Software development practice in which the code changes are integrated and tested frequently and usually on a daily basis is termed as continuous integration. Our main goal of continuous integration is to detect and fix integration issues as early as possible in the development process and thereby improving the quality of the software and reducing the cost and time of fixing defects. Continuous integration involves the use of automation tools such as Jenkins and Selenium.

96. What is continuous testing?

From the term itself, we can infer that continuous testing is a software testing practice that involves testing the software continuously throughout the software development process from requirements gathering to deployment. The main goal of continuous testing is to provide early and frequent feedback on the quality of the software and to identify and fix defects as early as possible in the development process. Continuous testing involves the use of automation tools such as Selenium, JUnit, and TestNG.

97. What is continuous delivery?

Continuous delivery is a software development practice in which the software is developed and delivered frequently and consistently which usually happens on a daily or weekly basis. The main goal of continuous delivery is to provide a faster and more reliable way of delivering software and to reduce the time and cost of releasing new features and updates. Continuous delivery involves the use of automation tools such as Docker, Jenkins, and Puppet.

98. What is continuous deployment?

Continuous Deployment is a software engineering approach in which software changes are automatically tested and deployed to production as soon as they are ready. The aim of continuous deployment is to accelerate software delivery and improve the quality of software by allowing for more frequent and smaller releases.

In continuous deployment, each change made to the software codebase goes through automated testing and validation to ensure that it meets the required quality standards. If the changes pass the tests then they are automatically deployed to production without any human intervention. This means that new features and bug fixes are continuously delivered to users without any delay.

Continuous deployment requires a high degree of automation including automated testing and continuous integration. It also requires a high level of collaboration between developers, testers, and operations teams to ensure that the process runs smoothly and any issues are resolved quickly.

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99. What is the role of a software tester?

As a software tester, your roles may include:

  • Understanding the requirements: Understanding the requirements and design documents then preparing test cases and test scenarios.

  • Test Planning: Planning the testing approach, defining the scope and objectives of the testing, and preparing the test plan.

  • Test Execution: Executing test cases, logging defects, verifying fixes, and updating the test cases based on the new findings.

  • Reporting and Tracking: Generating test reports, tracking the progress of testing, and communicating the test results to stakeholders.

  • Test Automation: Designing and implementing test automation scripts, executing automated tests, and maintaining automation frameworks.

  • Collaboration: Collaborating with developers, business analysts, and other stakeholders to ensure the quality of the software product.

  • Continuous Improvement: Continuously improving testing processes, methodologies, and tools to enhance the overall testing efficiency and effectiveness.

  • Domain Knowledge: Gaining domain knowledge of the software application and the industry in which it operates to ensure that the software meets the end-users needs.

Overall, If you want to be a software tester then you will play a critical role in ensuring that the software meets the business requirements as well as end-user needs and operates efficiently without any defects or issues.

100. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?

Smoke testing and sanity testing are two types of preliminary testing performed on the application before the actual testing process.

The key differences between the two are as follows:

  • Smoke testing is done to check whether the application is stable enough for further testing or not while sanity testing is done to check whether the application is behaving as expected after making minor changes or enhancements.

  • Smoke testing is a wide-ranging test that includes all the major functionalities of an application while sanity testing is a narrow test that focuses on the specific changes made.

  • Smoke testing is performed to identify whether the application is stable enough for further testing or not while sanity testing is performed to check whether the changes made are working as expected or not.

  • Smoke testing is performed early in the testing cycle while sanity testing is performed later after making minor changes or enhancements.

101. What is the difference between usability testing and user acceptance testing?

Usability testing and user acceptance testing (UAT) are two different types of testing that focus on the user’s perspective. Let’s see the key differences between the two which are as follows:

  • Usability testing checks the ease of use and overall user experience of the application while UAT is performed by the end-users to ensure that the application meets their requirements and works as expected.

  • Usability testing is conducted by the testing team while UAT is performed by the end users.

  • Usability testing is performed early in the testing cycle while UAT is performed after the testing is complete.

  • Usability testing focuses on the ease of use and overall user experience of the application while UAT focuses on whether the application meets the user’s requirements and works as expected.

102. What is the difference between compatibility testing and configuration testing?

Compatibility testing and configuration testing are two types of testing performed to ensure that the application works on different platforms and devices. Let’s see the key differences between the two which are as follows:

  • Compatibility testing checks the application’s compatibility with different operating systems and devices while configuration testing ensures that the application works correctly with different configurations of hardware and software.

  • Compatibility testing focuses on the application’s compatibility with different platforms while configuration testing focuses on the application’s compatibility with different configurations of hardware and software.

  • Compatibility testing is performed by testing the application on different operating systems and devices while configuration testing is performed by testing the application on different configurations of hardware and software.

  • Compatibility testing is performed early in the testing cycle while configuration testing is performed later in the testing cycle.

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103. What is the difference between boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning?

Boundary value analysis (BVA) and equivalence partitioning are two black box testing techniques used to identify the test cases.

Let’s see the key differences between the two which are as follows:

  • BVA is used to test the boundary conditions of the input values while equivalence partitioning is used to test the input values by dividing them into equivalent classes.

  • BVA focuses on the boundary conditions of the input values while equivalence partitioning emphasizes on dividing the input values into equivalent classes.

  • BVA is used to identify the test cases that lie on the boundary values while the latter is used to identify the test cases that represent the same behavior of the application.

  • BVA is used when the input values are within a certain range while the latter is used when the input values can be divided into multiple equivalent classes.

104. What is the difference between retesting and regression testing?

Retesting and regression testing are two different types of software testing, each with a unique purpose and approach. Let’s see the main differences between retesting and regression testing which are as follows:

  • Purpose: The purpose of retesting is to verify that a specific issue has been resolved while the purpose of regression testing is to ensure that the system as a whole still works as expected after changes have been made.

  • Scope: Retesting typically focuses on a specific issue or bug while regression testing involves testing the entire system.

  • Timing: Retesting is typically done after a specific issue has been fixed while regression testing is typically done after changes have been made to the system such as the introduction of new features or modifications to existing ones.

  • Test cases: Retesting typically involves running the same test cases that were used to identify the issue in the first place while regression testing typically involves running a broader set of test cases that cover different areas of the system.

  • Test environment: Retesting can often be done in a simpler test environment since the issue has already been identified and isolated while regression testing, on the other hand, requires a more complex test environment to ensure that all aspects of the system are tested thoroughly.

In short, we can conclude that retesting and regression testing are both important components of the software testing process but they serve different purposes and require different approaches. Retesting is focused on verifying that a specific issue has been resolved while regression testing is focused on ensuring that the system as a whole still functions correctly after changes have been made.

105. What is the difference between top-down and bottom-up testing?

The difference between top-down and bottom-up testing are as follows:

  • Top-down testing is a testing approach that starts with the highest-level module of the system and then progresses to the lower-level modules. Bottom-up testing, on the other hand, starts with the lowest level module and progresses upwards.

  • Top-down testing is generally used in integration testing, where the focus is on how modules interact with each other to deliver specific functionality. Bottom-up testing is typically used in unit testing, where the focus is on testing individual modules or components.

  • In top-down testing, dummy or temporary modules are used to simulate the behavior of lower-level modules. In bottom-up testing, stubs or drivers are used to simulate the behavior of higher-level modules.

  • Top-down testing is suitable for systems where the control flow is hierarchical and the modules have well-defined interfaces. Bottom-up testing is suitable for systems where modules are loosely coupled and communicate via message passing.

  • Top-down testing can uncover interface and communication issues early in the testing process. Bottom-up testing can help identify issues with individual modules and their interactions.

Top-down testing can uncover interface and communication issues early in the testing process. Bottom-up testing can help identify issues with individual modules and their interactions.

106. What is the difference between black box testing and white box testing?

Both are very important concepts in software testing and hence it is necessary to know the difference between these two which are as follows:

  • Black box testing is a testing technique where the tester is unaware of the internal structure of the system under test and the focus is on testing the functionality of the system as seen by the end-user while white box testing involves testing the internal structure and workings of the system.

  • Black-box testing is suitable for testing high-level requirements and system-level functionality while white box testing is suitable for testing low-level requirements and internal logic.

  • In black-box testing, the test cases are derived from the system requirements and specifications while the test cases are derived from the system’s code and internal structure in case of white box testing.

  • Black box testing can uncover issues related to user interface and performance while white box testing can uncover issues related to security and performance.

  • Black box testing can be performed by testers without any programming knowledge while white box testing requires testers with programming skills and knowledge of the system’s internal workings.

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107. What is the difference between a test case and a test scenario?

Let’s see the differences between a test case and a test scenario based on major points which are as follows:

  • A test case is a specific condition or scenario that a tester executes to determine whether a system or application meets specific requirements while a test scenario is a collection of test cases that are designed to test a specific feature or functionality of a system or application.

  • Test cases are specific steps or actions that are taken to verify a particular requirement or feature while test scenarios are broader and cover a range of possible scenarios that a user might encounter while using the system or application.

  • Test cases are often written by testers or quality assurance engineers while test scenarios are often written by business analysts or system analysts who are responsible for defining the requirements and functionality of the system or application.

  • Test cases are usually designed to be executed in a specific order while test scenarios are often designed to be executed in any order.

  • Test cases are often designed to be repeatable so that they can be executed multiple times to ensure that a defect has been fixed while test scenarios are often designed to be comprehensive so that they cover all possible scenarios that a user might encounter.

108. What is the difference between static and dynamic testing tools?

Static testing tools and dynamic testing tools are two different approaches to software testing. Let’s see five differences between the two which are as follows:

  • Nature of testing: Static testing tools examine the code or other artifacts without executing them while dynamic testing tools execute the software to observe its behavior and identify defects.

  • Timing: Static testing is performed during the early stages of software development while dynamic testing is performed later on in the development cycle after the code has been written.

  • Objectives: Static testing tools aim to identify defects and improve the quality of the code while dynamic testing tools aim to ensure that the software meets the specified requirements and functions correctly.

  • Types of defects: Static testing tools can detect a wide range of defects including coding errors, syntax errors, and design flaws while dynamic testing tools are better at identifying defects related to performance, reliability, and usability.

  • Level of automation: Static testing tools are often highly automated and can be integrated into the software development process seamlessly while dynamic testing tools require more human intervention such as setting up test environments, executing test cases, and analyzing test results.

109. What is the difference between functional and non-functional testing tools?

  • Purpose: Functional testing tools are used to test the functionality of the software application while non-functional testing tools are used to test the performance and other non-functional aspects of the software application.

  • Testing approach: Functional testing tools follow a black-box testing approach where the tester does not have knowledge of the internal workings of the software application while non-functional testing tools follow a white-box testing approach where the tester has knowledge of the internal workings of the software application.

  • Test cases: Functional testing tools require a set of test cases that cover all the functional requirements of the software application while non-functional testing tools require a set of test cases that cover the non-functional requirements of the software application such as load testing, stress testing, and security testing.

  • Output: The output of functional testing tools is usually in the form of test reports which indicate whether the software application has passed or failed the functional tests while the output of the latter is usually in the form of performance metrics which indicate the software application’s performance in terms of response time, throughput, and other non-functional aspects.

  • Test Automation: Functional testing tools are typically easier to automate than non-functional testing tools due to the fact that the test cases are more predictable and the expected results are more clearly defined while the latter require more complex scripts and tools to simulate real-world usage scenarios.

  • Tools: Functional testing tools include tools like Selenium, TestComplete, and HP UFT while non-functional testing tools include tools like JMeter, LoadRunner, and AppDynamics.

In short, we can conclude that functional testing tools are used to ensure that the software application meets its functional requirements while non-functional testing tools are used to ensure that the software application meets its non-functional requirements. Both types of testing tools are essential for ensuring the quality and reliability of the software application.

110. What is the difference between load testing and performance testing tools?

Load testing and performance testing are two types of testing that are often used interchangeably but they are not the same. Let’s see the five differences between the two which are as follows:

  • Objective: Load testing is performed to measure how a system performs under a specific amount of load while performance testing is done to measure how a system performs under various scenarios.

  • Focus: Load testing focuses on testing the system’s capacity and ability to handle a specific load while performance testing is more focused on analyzing the system’s responsiveness, speed, scalability, and stability.

  • Metrics: Load testing uses metrics such as response time, throughput, and error rate to evaluate the system while the latter uses metrics such as speed, latency, and resource utilization.

  • Tools: Load testing tools typically focus on simulating high volumes of concurrent users while performance testing tools often focus on simulating specific types of user activity such as database queries or transactions.

  • Analysis: Load testing typically involves analyzing the system’s response to a particular load level while performance testing involves analyzing the system’s behavior under varying conditions.

111. What is the difference between a defect and a bug?

Defect and bug are two terms that are often used interchangeably in software testing but they have slightly different meanings. Let’s see the five differences between the two which are as follows:

  • Definition: A defect is a flaw in a software application that prevents it from functioning as intended while a bug is a type of defect that is caused by an error in the code.

  • Cause: Defects can be caused by a variety of factors such as incomplete or unclear requirements, poor design, or errors in coding while the latter are caused specifically by errors in the code.

  • Severity: Defects can vary in severity from minor to critical while bugs are generally considered to be more severe because they directly affect the functionality of the software.

  • Detection: Defects can be detected through various testing methods such as functional testing, integration testing, and user acceptance testing while bugs are typically discovered through testing or by end-users.

  • Origin: The term defect is often used in the context of software development while bug is more commonly used in the context of software testing.

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112. What is the difference between a test plan and a test strategy?

The test plan and test strategy are both essential documents in software testing. Let’s see five points that differentiate the two which are as follows:

  • Purpose: The test plan outlines the specific approach for testing a particular product including the features to be tested, the testing methods, and the test environment while the test strategy outlines the overall approach to testing including the testing objectives, the scope of testing, and the risks involved.

  • Focus: The test plan is focused on the tactical details of testing such as the test cases and test data to be used while the test strategy is focused on the big picture such as the testing approach to be used across multiple projects or applications.

  • Scope: The test plan is specific to a particular project or release of a product while the test strategy is broader and applies to multiple projects or product releases.

  • Timeframe: The test plan typically covers a shorter period of time such as a single release cycle or sprint while the test strategy covers a longer timeframe and may apply to multiple releases or projects.

  • Level of detail: The test plan is typically more detailed than the test strategy as it outlines the specific tests to be conducted and the steps to be followed while the test strategy provides a higher-level view of the overall testing approach and objectives.

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113. What is the difference between incremental and iterative testing?

Let’s see the five major differentiating points in incremental testing and iterative testing which are as follows:

  • Incremental testing is a testing approach that focuses on testing a particular module or functionality in each iteration whereas iterative testing involves testing the entire system with each iteration.

  • In incremental testing, the testing is carried out in a sequential manner whereas the testing is carried out in a cyclic manner in iterative testing.

  • Incremental testing follows a top-down approach where each module is tested separately and then integrated whereas iterative testing follows a bottom-up approach where the system is tested as a whole.

  • Incremental testing is useful for large systems with complex functionalities whereas iterative testing is useful for systems with less complexity and smaller functionalities.

  • In incremental testing, the focus is on identifying and resolving defects in each iteration whereas the focus is on improving the system’s overall quality with each iteration in iterative testing.

114. What is the difference between test-driven development and behavior-driven development?

Let’s see the five major differentiating points between test-driven development(TDD) and behavior-driven development(BDD) which are as follows:

  • Test-driven development (TDD) is a development approach that emphasizes writing automated tests before writing the code whereas behavior-driven development (BDD) is a software development approach that focuses on creating behavior specifications in plain language.

  • TDD is primarily focused on testing the functionality of the code while BDD is focused on ensuring that the behavior of the system is correct.

  • TDD is often used by developers to catch defects early in the development process whereas BDD is used by developers and testers to ensure that the system meets the business requirements.

  • In TDD, tests are written in a technical language whereas in BDD, tests are written in a natural language that can be easily understood by non-technical stakeholders.

  • TDD is typically used in agile software development whereas BDD is commonly used in continuous integration and delivery environments.

115. What is the difference between acceptance testing and user acceptance testing?

Let’s see the five major differentiating points between acceptance testing and user acceptance testing(UAT) which are as follows:

  • Acceptance testing is a type of testing that is performed to determine whether the system meets the specified requirements whereas user acceptance testing (UAT) is a type of acceptance testing that is performed by end-users to ensure that the system meets their requirements.

  • Acceptance testing is usually performed by testers or business analysts whereas UAT is performed by end-users.

  • Acceptance testing is typically performed in a testing environment whereas UAT is usually performed in a production-like environment.

  • Acceptance testing is often automated whereas UAT is generally manual.

  • Acceptance testing is usually conducted before UAT as it helps to identify defects early in the development process.

116. What is the difference between functional and non-functional requirements?

Let’s see the five major differentiating points between functional and non-functional requirements which are as follows:

  • Functional requirements define what the software should do whereas non-functional requirements define how well the software should perform.

  • Functional requirements are typically focused on the business logic and system functionality whereas the latter are focused on performance, security, reliability, and usability.

  • Functional requirements can be tested through functional testing while non-functional requirements can be tested through non-functional testing such as performance testing, load testing, security testing, etc.

  • Functional requirements are typically more visible to end-users while non-functional requirements are more visible to system administrators, developers, and testers.

  • Functional requirements are typically easier to measure and quantify while the latter can be more subjective and difficult to measure objectively.

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117. What is the difference between acceptance criteria and test criteria?

Let’s see the five major differentiating points between acceptance criteria and test criteria which are as follows:

  • Acceptance criteria are defined by the business or end-user to determine whether a product meets their requirements whereas test criteria are defined by the testing team to ensure that the product is tested thoroughly and meets the desired quality standards.

  • Acceptance criteria are usually high-level whereas test criteria are more detailed and specific to each test scenario.

  • Acceptance criteria are used to determine if a product is ready for release while test criteria are used to determine if individual features or functions are working as expected.

  • Acceptance criteria are typically defined early in the project whereas test criteria are developed later in the project during the testing phase.

  • Acceptance criteria are usually focused on user satisfaction while test criteria are focused on ensuring the product meets the desired level of quality.

118. What is the difference between testing and validation?

Let’s see the five main differentiating points between testing and validation which are as follows:

  • Testing is the process of verifying that a product meets its requirements and is working as expected while validation is the process of verifying that the product meets the customer’s needs and expectations.

  • Testing is focused on ensuring that the product is functioning correctly while the latter is focused on ensuring that the product is the right solution for the customer’s needs.

  • Testing is usually carried out by the development or testing team while validation is often carried out by the customer or business analyst.

  • Testing is typically carried out using a predefined set of test cases while validation may involve customer feedback and surveys of gathering information about user satisfaction.

  • Testing is a technical process while validation is a business process that focuses on customer satisfaction.

119. What is the difference between manual and automated testing?

Let’s see the five main differentiating points between manual and automated testing which are as follows:

  • Manual testing is carried out manually by a human tester while automated testing is carried out using automation tools and scripts.

  • Manual testing is more time-consuming and error-prone than automated testing but it can be more effective in identifying certain types of defects and issues.

  • Automated testing is more reliable and efficient than manual testing but it requires more technical expertise and can be more expensive to implement.

  • Manual testing is better suited for exploratory testing and usability testing while the latter is better suited for regression testing and performance testing.

  • Manual testing is more flexible and adaptable to changing requirements while automated testing is more rigid and requires more upfront planning and design.

120. What is the difference between the software development life cycle and the software testing life cycle?

Let’s see the main differentiating points between the software development life cycle(SDLC) and the software testing life cycle(STLC) which are as follows:

  • The software development life cycle (SDLC) is the process of developing a software product from conception to deployment while the software testing life cycle (STLC) is the process of testing the software product to ensure that it meets its requirements and is of high quality.

  • The SDLC is a broader process that includes activities such as requirements gathering, design, coding, and deployment while the STLC is focused specifically on testing activities.

  • The SDLC is typically followed by the entire development team while the STLC is typically followed by the testing team.

  • The SDLC is typically sequential with each phase completed before moving on to the next while the STLC can be iterative and may involve repeating testing activities as issues are identified and resolved.

  • The SDLC is a rigid framework whereas STLC is flexible and adaptable to changes in the software development process.

  • The SDLC involves stakeholders in the requirement gathering and analysis phase whereas STLC involves stakeholders in the testing phase to ensure that the software meets the expected quality standards.

  • The SDLC focuses on delivering a fully developed and functional software product whereas STLC focuses on delivering a bug-free software product by conducting various types of testing.

  • The SDLC focuses on identifying and mitigating risks associated with software development whereas STLC focuses on identifying and mitigating risks associated with software testing.

  • The objective of SDLC is to develop a software product that meets the customer’s requirements whereas the objective of STLC is to ensure that the software product meets the expected quality standards through various types of testing.

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121. What is boundary value analysis?

Boundary Value Analysis is a black box testing technique used to identify errors around the boundaries of input ranges. In this technique, input values are selected from the boundary values of the input domain. The idea behind this technique is that most errors tend to occur at the boundaries rather than in the middle of the input range. Boundary value analysis helps in verifying that the application handles the input values correctly at the boundary values.

122. What is equivalence partitioning?

Equivalence Partitioning is a black box testing technique used to identify errors by dividing the input domain into smaller partitions. In this technique, the input values are divided into groups and only a few values are tested from each group instead of testing every value individually. The goal of this technique is to reduce the number of test cases while still achieving good test coverage.

123. What is a test plan document?

A Test Plan Document is a formal document that describes the overall approach, objectives, scope, and deliverables of the testing process. The document outlines the test strategy, test objectives, resources required, timelines, and the testing methodology that will be used. The document serves as a guide to the testing team and provides a clear picture of the testing process including the test environment, testing phases, and test deliverables.

124. What is a test log?

A document that records the details of the testing process including the results of individual tests, errors or defects identified, and the steps taken to resolve them is termed as Test Log and it is a critical record of the testing process and helps the testing team keep track of the testing progress, test results, and any issues encountered. The Test Log also serves as evidence of the testing carried out and provides valuable information to stakeholders about the quality of the software being tested.

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125. What is a test summary report?

A Test Summary Report is a document that summarizes the results of the testing process. It provides an overview of the testing activities carried out including the test objectives, test scope, test environment, testing methodology used, and the test results. The report also includes any defects or issues identified during testing, the severity of each issue, and the steps taken to resolve them. The Test Summary Report is an essential document that helps stakeholders understand the quality of the software being tested and provides valuable information for decision-making regarding the software’s release and is often referred to as TSR.

126. What is a test execution report?

A Test Execution Report is a document that provides an overview of the testing process including test results and the overall status of the testing effort which generally includes information on the test environment used, test cases executed, and the pass/fail status of each test case. The report also summarizes the progress of testing, identifies any issues encountered during testing, and provides recommendations for further testing or improvements to the testing process.

127. What is a test case design technique?

The test case design technique is a systematic approach used by software testers to design test cases. It is a process of identifying and creating test cases based on various factors such as requirements, specifications, design documents, and other inputs. The primary goal of test case design techniques is to ensure that test cases are thorough and effective in detecting defects in the software.

There are various techniques used for test case design including:

  • Equivalence partitioning: Dividing the input domain of a program into classes of data and designing test cases based on each class.

  • Boundary value analysis: Designing test cases based on the boundary values of input and output domains.

  • Decision table testing: Creating test cases based on the combination of inputs and outputs for complex business rules.

  • State transition testing: Designing test cases based on the different states of the software and how it transitions from one state to another.

  • Error guessing: Using the tester’s intuition and experience to identify possible defects and designing test cases to expose them.

These techniques help testers to identify and design test cases that can effectively detect defects in the software ensuring that it meets the required quality standards.

128. What is a test bed?

A test bed is an environment set up specifically for software testing purposes. It includes all of the necessary hardware and software resources required to simulate real-world scenarios and test software applications or systems.

Testbeds can be used to:

  • Evaluate system behavior under different conditions

  • Test the performance and scalability of the system

  • Verify that system requirements are being met

Testbeds may also include specialized tools or software designed for testing such as load testing software or network simulators. The purpose of a test bed is to provide a controlled environment where testers can safely and effectively evaluate the behavior of software and identify any defects or issues before the system is released to production.

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129. What is a test oracle?

In software testing, a test oracle is a mechanism used to determine whether a software system produces the expected results for a given test case. It is a source of expected outcomes that testers use to compare with the actual results generated by the system under test.

The test oracle can be based on various sources such as:

  • Requirements specifications

  • Design documents

  • Historical data

  • Domain knowledge

The primary goal of a test oracle is to help identify defects or inconsistencies in the software being tested.

130. What is the difference between an incident and a defect?

Let’s know the main differentiating points between an incident and a defect which are as follows:

  • An incident is an unexpected event that occurs during testing whereas a defect is a problem or imperfection in the software or system being tested.

  • Incidents are typically identified during testing while defects may exist before testing or be discovered later in the software development lifecycle.

  • Incidents are typically logged in an incident report while defects are logged in a defect-tracking system or bug-tracking system.

  • Incidents may or may not be related to defects. For example, an incident may occur due to a network connectivity issue rather than a defect in the software.

  • Incidents can have varying degrees of severity while defects are typically classified by severity, priority, and status.

131. What is the difference between a defect report and a bug report?

Let’s see the major differences between a defect report and a bug report along with their differentiating criteria:

  • Terminology: The term “defect” is often used in the context of formal software development processes while “bug” is a more informal term. Although generally these terms are often used interchangeably.

  • Scope: A defect report is typically a broader term that covers any problem or imperfection in the software being tested while a bug report may be used to refer specifically to issues that cause the software to behave in unexpected or unintended ways.

  • Format: Both types of reports generally include a description of the problem, steps to reproduce it, and any relevant details but the format may differ depending on the organization or the tool used to manage the reports.

  • Severity: The severity of a defect or bug may be classified differently depending on the organization or tool used. For example, a critical defect may be considered a high-priority bug but not all high-priority bugs are necessarily critical defects. The specific classification used may affect the response time and resolution of the issue.

132. What is the difference between test execution and test evaluation?

Let’s see the five differences between test execution and test evaluation along with their differentiating criteria:

  • Definition: Test execution is the process of running the tests that have been designed for a particular software system or application while test evaluation, on the other hand, is the process of analyzing the results of the tests to determine whether the software meets the desired quality standards.

  • Timing: Test execution is typically done during the testing phase of the software development life cycle while test evaluation is typically done after the tests have been run and the results have been collected.

  • Activities: Test execution involves running the tests, recording the results, and identifying any defects or issues that are found while test evaluation involves analyzing the results, identifying patterns or trends, and making decisions about the quality of the software.

  • Metrics: Test execution often produces metrics such as test coverage, pass/fail rates, and defect density while test evaluation often produces metrics such as defect trends, mean time to failure, and overall system reliability.

  • Responsibility: Test execution is often the responsibility of the testing team while test evaluation is often the responsibility of the quality assurance or management team.

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133. What is the difference between test planning and test design?

Test planning and test design are two important phases in software testing. Let’s see the differences between test planning and test design based on five differentiating criteria which are as follows:

  • Objective: The main objective of test planning is to identify the scope of testing, test strategies, timelines, and resources required to execute the testing while on the other hand, the main objective of test design is to identify and create the test cases, test data, and test scenarios for each requirement.

  • Timing: Test planning is done in the early stages of the testing process, before the test design phase while test design is done after the test planning phase where the actual test cases are designed and documented.

  • Scope: Test planning defines the overall scope of testing and identifies the different types of testing that need to be performed while test design focuses on the individual test cases and how they will be executed.

  • Deliverables: The main deliverables of the test planning phase are the test plan document, test strategy, and test schedule while the main deliverables of the test design phase are the test cases, test scripts, and test scenarios.

  • Inputs: The inputs to the test planning phase are the requirements, project plan and any other relevant documents while the inputs to the test design phase are the test plan, requirements, and design documents.

134. What is the difference between test design and test execution?

Test design and test execution are two essential phases in software testing. Let’s see the differences between test design and test execution based on five differentiating criteria which are as follows:

  • Objective: The main objective of test design is to create test cases, test scenarios, and test scripts to verify the software under test while on the other hand, the main objective of test execution is to run the test cases, report the results, and identify defects.

  • Timing: Test design is done in the earlier phases of testing whereas test execution takes place after test design. Test design is typically done in parallel with development while test execution is typically done after the software has been developed.

  • Deliverables: The main deliverables of the test design phase are test cases, test scripts, and test scenarios while the main deliverables of the test execution phase are test results, defects, and test logs.

  • Skillset: The test design phase requires a strong understanding of the software requirements and design, as well as knowledge of testing techniques and methodologies while test execution, on the other hand, requires a good understanding of the test cases and the ability to execute them accurately.

  • Coverage: Test design focuses on achieving high test coverage by creating test cases that cover all the requirements and scenarios while test execution, on the other hand, focuses on verifying the software behavior and finding defects by executing the test cases.

135. What is the difference between exploratory testing and ad-hoc testing?

Let’s see the main differences between exploratory testing and ad-hoc testing based on a few criteria as follows:

  • Objective: The objective of exploratory testing is to find defects and issues in software and it is performed with no formal test cases and with minimum or no prior knowledge of the application while the objective of ad-hoc testing is to explore the system under test by randomly executing any functional module without any defined test scenarios, scripts, or plans.

  • Approach: Exploratory testing is a structured approach to testing where the tester has a goal in mind and a set of documented test charters to follow while ad-hoc testing, on the other hand, is a free-flowing approach where the tester has no plan and just explores the software as they go along.

  • Documentation: Exploratory testing involves documenting the testing process including the goals, observations, and test cases created during the testing process while Ad-hoc testing is not documented and relies on the tester’s memory to recall the testing process.

  • Test Design: Exploratory testing is designed based on prior knowledge of the application and requirements while ad-hoc testing does not have any specific design and can be executed randomly.

  • Test Coverage: Exploratory testing aims to cover as much of the application as possible by focusing on specific features, functions, or requirements while ad-hoc testing does not have any specific coverage and may miss some critical features or requirements.

In short, we can conclude that even though exploratory testing and ad-hoc testing are both informal testing techniques but exploratory testing is a structured approach to testing with specific goals and documented test charters while ad-hoc testing is a free-flowing approach with no specific design or coverage thus relying on the tester’s memory to recall the testing process.

136. What is defect leakage?

Defect leakage which is also known as “defect seepage” or “defect escape” is a term used to describe defects that are found by end-users or customers after the software has been released. Defect leakage can occur when the software is not adequately tested or when defects that are found during testing are not properly addressed or resolved. Defect leakage can lead to negative consequences for the business such as loss of customer trust, increased support costs, and damage to the brand’s reputation.

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137. What is a test driver?

In software testing, a test driver is a software component that acts as a tool to execute a test suite. It provides the necessary environment for the test cases to run and verifies the results.

A test driver typically performs the following tasks:

  • Initializes the test environment

  • Calls the functions or methods to be tested

  • Passes input parameters to the functions or methods

  • Collects output from the functions or methods

  • Compares the expected results with the actual results

  • Reports the success or failure of the test case

A test driver can be a simple script or a sophisticated software component depending on the complexity of the software under test. It is often used in conjunction with test stubs to simulate the behavior of the software’s dependencies.

138. What is a test stub?

A test stub is a software component that is used in automated testing to simulate the behavior of a module that is not yet available or completed and is typically used in integration testing where the software modules are integrated and tested together as a group. The test stub acts as a substitute for the missing module thus allowing the testing to proceed as if the module were available. The test stub can also provide predefined inputs and outputs to the software being tested and hence enabling the tester to verify the behavior of the integrated system.

139. What is a traceability matrix?

A traceability matrix is a document or tool that is used to track and verify the relationship between different artifacts or elements of a software project. Generally used in software testing to ensure that the test cases cover all the requirements and that all the defects are traced back to their original sources.

The traceability matrix can be used to track the relationship between the requirements, defects, and other project artifacts such as design documents and code modules and thus helps to ensure that the testing is comprehensive and that all the requirements have been met and all defects have been identified and resolved. The traceability matrix can also be used as a tool for project management thus enabling stakeholders to track the progress of the testing and ensure that the project stays on track.

140. What is the difference between test coverage and code coverage?

Let’s discuss the differences between test coverage and code coverage which are as follows:

  • Meaning: Test coverage refers to the extent to which testing covers the requirements or functionality of the system while code coverage refers to the percentage of code that has been executed during testing.

  • Concern with: Test coverage is concerned with verifying whether the system meets the requirements while code coverage is concerned with measuring the quality of the code.

  • Measurement techniques: Test coverage can be measured using techniques such as requirement-based testing, boundary value analysis, and equivalence partitioning while code coverage can be measured using techniques such as statement coverage, branch coverage, and path coverage.

  • Scope: Test coverage is a measure of the effectiveness of the testing process while code coverage is a measure of the completeness of the code.

  • Uses: Test coverage can be used to identify areas of the system that have not been adequately tested while code coverage can be used to identify areas of the code that need to be refactored or improved.

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141. What is a test case review?

We can define test case review as a process where the developed test cases are evaluated to ensure their effectiveness and accuracy and this review is usually performed by a group of people that includes testers, developers, and other stakeholders who have an understanding of the software being tested. Our main objective of the test case review is to identify any potential defects or issues with the test cases before they are executed.

During the review, the team checks the followings:

  • Do the test cases cover all the requirements?

  • Are they clear and easy to understand?

  • Are they reusable?

  • Do they provide adequate coverage of the application under test?

  • Checking for any errors/inconsistencies/omissions in the test cases.

Test case reviews are an important aspect of the software testing process as they help to improve the quality of the test cases and ultimately the quality of the software. By detecting defects early in the process it helps us to reduce the cost and effort of fixing them at later stages.

142. What is a walkthrough?

In software testing, a walkthrough is a type of review where the author of a document such as a requirements specification or a design document leads a group of reviewers through the document to gather feedback and ensure understanding.

The primary purpose of a walkthrough is to identify any potential issues or misunderstandings early in the development process before significant time and resources have been invested. During a walkthrough, participants may ask questions, provide feedback and suggest changes to the document. The author may also use the opportunity to clarify any ambiguities or address any concerns.

In short, we can conclude that a walkthrough can be an effective way to improve the quality of a document and ensure that all stakeholders have a clear understanding of the requirements and design.

143. What is a risk-based testing approach?

Risk-based testing approach is a testing methodology that focuses on identifying and prioritizing the high-risk areas of an application and allocating testing resources accordingly. The aim of this approach is to ensure that the most critical functionality is thoroughly tested and the maximum number of defects are detected with minimum testing effort.

Some key points about the risk-based testing approach are as follows:

  • Identification of high-risk areas: The first step is to identify the areas of an application or system that are high-risk and critical and this is done through a risk analysis process that considers various factors such as the impact on users, business, and environment, the likelihood of occurrence, severity, and consequences of failure.

  • Prioritization of testing efforts: Once the high-risk areas have been identified then the testing efforts are prioritized based on the level of risk associated with each area. The most critical areas are tested first then followed by areas of lower risk. This ensures that testing efforts are focused on the areas that are most likely to result in failures.

  • Defining test objectives and scope: The next step is to define the test objectives and scope for each high-risk area and this involves identifying the types of tests to be performed and the level of testing required followed by the expected results.

  • Test execution and tracking: Once the test objectives and scope have been defined then the testing is executed and the results are tracked. The results of the testing are then used to determine if any additional testing is required or if the application is ready for release.

  • Ongoing monitoring and improvement: This includes analyzing the results of testing then identifying areas for improvement and implementing changes to the testing process to reduce risk and improve overall quality.

144. What is the difference between a defect and an error?

Let’s understand the differences between an error and a defect:

  • An error is a mistake made by a developer during writing code while a defect is a deviation of actual behavior from expected behavior.

  • Errors are found during the development phase while defects are discovered during the testing phase.

  • Errors can be fixed during the development phase while defects require fixing during the testing phase.

  • Errors are the cause of defects and identifying and fixing errors can prevent defects.

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145. What is the difference between a test case and a test script?

Let’s understand the differences between a test case and a test script based on a few points which are as follows:

  • A test case is a set of steps that need to be executed to validate a specific requirement or functionality while a test script is a set of automated instructions that can be executed to execute test cases.

  • Test cases are generally manual and require human intervention while test scripts are automated and executed by a tool.

  • Test cases are often designed based on the requirement while test scripts are written using programming languages to automate the test cases.

  • Test cases can be executed both manually and automated while test scripts can only be automated.

  • Test cases help ensure that a software application works as expected and meets user requirements while test scripts help speed up the testing process and increase accuracy.

146. What is the difference between testing and debugging?

Let’s understand the differences between testing and debugging based on few points which are as follows :

  • Meaning: Testing is a process of verifying if a software application is working as expected and meets user requirements while debugging is a process of identifying and fixing defects in software code.

  • Type: Testing is a planned process that involves designing, executing and evaluating tests while debugging is an unplanned process that involves investigating and identifying the root causes of defects.

  • Done by: Testing is typically done by testers who do not have access to the source code while debugging is done by developers who have access to the source code.

  • Aim: Testing aims to validate the software application and ensure it meets user requirements while debugging aims to identify and fix defects in the code.

  • Focus: Testing is a preventative measure that aims to ensure quality in the software development process while debugging is a corrective measure that aims to fix issues found during testing.

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147. What is a defect life cycle?

The defect life cycle which is also known as the bug life cycle is the process through which a defect goes from discovery to resolution and it describes the various stages that a defect goes through in its lifetime.

The different stages of a typical defect life cycle are as follows:

  • New: The defect is reported and waiting for triage or verification.

  • Assigned: The defect is reviewed and assigned to a developer to fix it.

  • Open: The developer begins working on the defect.

  • Fixed: The defect has been fixed by the developer and waiting for retesting.

  • Retest: The defect is sent back to the testing team to verify if it’s resolved.

  • Verified: The defect is verified before sent to the next stage.

  • Closed: The defect has been verified as resolved and no further action is required.

  • Reopened: The defect was previously marked as resolved but has reappeared.

The defect life cycle helps the development and testing teams to track the progress of defect resolution and ensure that all defects are handled properly. By monitoring the defect life cycle, the teams can identify bottlenecks and delays in the defect resolution process and take corrective action.

148. What is a test case management tool?

A test case management tool is a software application designed to help manage the creation, execution, and tracking of test cases and related information. These tools provide a centralized repository for test cases and thus allowing testers to easily create, modify, and execute test cases. They also often include features for tracking test coverage, linking test cases to requirements, generating test reports, and collaborating with team members.

Test case management tools can be particularly useful for large and complex projects with many test cases where it would be difficult to manage everything manually. By using a test case management tool, testers can improve their efficiency, accuracy, and consistency in executing tests and can also better track progress and report on results.

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149. What is a test automation tool?

A test automation tool is a software that automates the process of executing test cases. These tools are used to simulate user interactions with an application which can help reduce the time and effort required for manual testing. Test automation tools can also be used to perform repetitive tasks such as regression testing resulting in freeing up testers to focus on more complex testing tasks. They also help in improving the accuracy of testing and reducing the risk of human error.

150. What is a test management tool?

A test management tool is a software application that helps in managing the entire testing process from planning and design to execution and reporting. Test management tools provide a centralized repository for storing and sharing test plans, test cases, and test results and hence allow testers to track testing progress, manage testing resources, and monitor test coverage. These tools also provide a range of reporting and analysis capabilities helping stakeholders to make informed decisions about the testing process.

151. What is a test reporting tool?

A test reporting tool is a software application that helps in generating reports on the results of testing. These tools allow testers to create custom reports that can be shared with stakeholders and thus providing them with information on the status of testing, test coverage, and defects found. Test reporting tools also provide visualization capabilities and hence allow stakeholders to easily understand the information presented in the reports.

152. What is a test environment management tool?

A test environment management tool is a software application that helps in managing the test environment including hardware and software configurations. These tools allow testers to create and manage multiple test environments and thus ensure that the testing is performed under the same conditions as the production environment. Test environment management tools also provide reporting and analysis capabilities and hence help stakeholders to understand the impact of the environment on the testing process.

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153. What is a test design tool?

A test design tool is a software application that helps in designing test cases and these tools can be used to create test scenarios, test cases, and test data. They also provide the ability to manage test designs and track changes made to test cases. Test design tools can help in improving the quality of test cases by ensuring that they are well-structured and cover all relevant scenarios resulting in easy maintenance.

154. What is a code coverage tool?

A code coverage tool is a software testing tool used to measure the amount of code covered during testing and analyzes the source code and track which lines of code have been executed during a test run and generates a report that indicates the percentage of code that was covered by the tests.

Code coverage tools are used to determine how thoroughly a test suite is testing an application or system and can help us to identify gaps in test coverage and provide insights into where additional testing may be needed. By using a code coverage tool, developers can ensure that their code is being tested thoroughly and that any potential issues are identified and addressed before the code is deployed to production.

An example of a code coverage tool is JaCoCo which is a free and open-source tool for measuring and reporting Java code coverage. It works by instrumenting the Java bytecode and providing detailed information about which lines of code were executed during the tests. JaCoCo can be integrated with various build tools and IDEs, and it supports multiple output formats including HTML, XML, and CSV.

155. What is a load testing tool?

A load testing tool is a software application that helps in testing the performance of an application under heavy loads. These tools can simulate thousands of users interacting with the application simultaneously and hence help testers to identify performance bottlenecks and other issues. Load testing tools can also help in determining the maximum capacity of the application and thus provide information on how the application will perform under peak loads.

156. What is a security testing tool?

A security testing tool is a software tool designed to identify vulnerabilities and security flaws in an application or network. These tools can be used to simulate attacks on the application and thus helping us to identify weaknesses in the security architecture. Security testing tools can also provide us with information on compliance with security standards and regulations. These tools are essential for any organization that takes security seriously, as they help to identify potential security risks before they can be exploited by attackers. These tools automate the process of security testing and can be used to detect security issues such as:

  • SQL injection

  • Cross-site scripting

  • Other types of vulnerabilities

Some popular security testing tools include:

  • Burp Suite

  • Metasploit

  • Nessus

  • OpenVAS

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157. What is a usability testing tool?

A usability testing tool is a software tool that is designed to evaluate the usability of a software application and is used to measure how easy it is for users to navigate and interact with a system or application.

These tools can help testers identify areas where users might struggle such as confusing navigation, unclear instructions or poorly-designed interfaces.

Some popular usability testing tools include:

  • UserTesting

  • Optimal Workshop

  • UsabilityHub

158. What is a performance testing tool?

A performance testing tool is a software that testers commonly use to evaluate the speed, scalability and stability of an application under various workload conditions. These tools help to simulate different types of loads and measure system performance.

Performance testing tools can be used to identify bottlenecks, track response times and measure resource utilization during peak periods. They can also generate reports and graphs to provide insights into the performance characteristics of the application being tested.

Some examples of performance testing tools include:

  • Apache JMeter

  • LoadRunner

  • Gatling

159. What is a test result analysis tool?

A test result analysis tool is a software tool that helps in analyzing and interpreting the results of software testing activities. It provides various features and functionalities to process and analyze the test results and allows testers and stakeholders to make informed decisions based on the findings.

Some common features of test result analysis tools include:

  • Test result aggregation: The tool collects and aggregates test results from multiple sources such as test automation frameworks, test management tools or continuous integration systems.

  • Result visualization: The tool provides visual representations of test results such as graphs, charts or dashboards to make it easier to understand the overall test status and identify trends or patterns.

  • Defect tracking: The tool integrates with defect tracking systems to link test results with reported defects and hence enabling efficient tracking and resolution of issues.

  • Historical analysis: The tool allows users to compare current test results with historical data and thus enabling trend analysis and identification of areas of improvement or regression.

  • Filtering and sorting: The tool provides options to filter and sort test results based on various criteria such as test cases, test suites or execution status to focus on specific areas of interest.

  • Root cause analysis: The tool assists in identifying the root causes of test failures or issues by providing detailed information about the test environment, logs, and error messages.

By using a test result analysis tool, testing teams can efficiently analyze and interpret the test results, identify areas of improvement, and make data-driven decisions to enhance the overall quality of the software being tested.

160. What is test execution?

Test execution is the process of running the actual test cases either manually or through automation to verify if the application behaves as expected or not. During test execution, the testers follow the test cases to check for defects or deviations from expected behavior. The execution phase involves creating test logs, recording test results, and reporting defects. Test execution is a crucial step in the testing process as it helps identify defects and errors that may have gone unnoticed in earlier stages.

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161. What is a test execution tool?

A test execution tool is a software application that is used to execute test cases automatically and helps us to automate the test execution process resulting in reduced time and effort required for manual testing. Test execution tools can perform various actions such as:

  • Entering test data

  • Verifying expected results

  • Generating test reports

162. What is a test case execution log?

A test case execution log is a record of the actual testing activities performed during the execution of a set of test cases.

It documents the details of each test case that was executed such as:

  • Date and time of execution

  • Actual results obtained

  • Any issues or defects identified

  • Testing environment

  • Test data used

  • Steps followed during execution

The test case execution log serves as a historical record of the testing performed and can be used for tracking progress and identifying areas for improvement. It is an important document for the testing team and other stakeholders to track the testing progress and ensure the quality of the product.

163. What is test case maintenance?

Test case maintenance involves the process of updating and managing test cases to keep them relevant and up-to-date with the changing requirements of the application under test. Test case maintenance involves adding new test cases, modifying existing test cases, and removing obsolete test cases. Test case maintenance ensures that the testing process remains effective and efficient and helps to identify defects early in the development cycle.

164. What is a test automation framework?

A test automation framework is a set of guidelines and best practices for automating the testing process and provides a structured approach to test automation and helps to standardize the testing process. A test automation framework includes tools, libraries, and scripts that support the automation of the testing process. The framework provides a consistent and repeatable approach to testing and thus reduces the time and effort required for testing resulting in improvement of the accuracy and reliability of the test results.

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165. What is keyword-driven testing?

Keyword-driven testing is a software testing approach that separates the test design and implementation from the test execution. In this approach, test cases are designed and organized using keywords or action words that represent specific test actions or operations.

The basic idea behind keyword-driven testing is to create a set of reusable keywords that encapsulate test actions such as clicking a button, entering data, or verifying results. These keywords are then used to define test steps or test scripts in a tabular format which is often referred to as a test data table or test script table.

The test scripts are typically organized in a modular and hierarchical manner which allows for better maintainability and reusability. The test data table contains the test inputs, expected results, and references to the keywords that need to be executed.

During test execution, a keyword-driven testing framework interprets the test scripts and executes the corresponding keywords. Each keyword is associated with an underlying implementation or code snippet that performs the actual test action.

The benefits of keyword-driven testing include:

  • Modularity and reusability: The use of keywords allows for modular test design and encourages the reuse of test components, improving efficiency and reducing maintenance efforts.

  • Test case abstraction: Test cases are expressed in a higher-level language using keywords, making them more readable and understandable by both technical and non-technical stakeholders.

  • Flexibility and maintainability: Test scripts can be easily modified or extended by adding, removing, or modifying keywords without the need to change the underlying implementation code.

  • Test data separation: Test data is decoupled from the test scripts, allowing for easy management and modification of test inputs and expected results.

  • Collaboration: Keyword-driven testing promotes collaboration between testers, developers, and other stakeholders as the test scripts can be easily reviewed and understood by multiple team members.

Overall, keyword-driven testing provides a structured approach to test design and execution which enables teams to achieve better test coverage, maintainability, and reusability in their testing efforts.

166. What is data-driven testing?

Data-driven testing is a testing technique where test cases are designed based on the data that is input into a software application. In data-driven testing, a set of input data is defined to exercise the functionality of an application in various ways. These input data sets are defined as test data and test cases are designed to use this test data.

The main objective of data-driven testing is to reduce the time and effort required to create and maintain test cases. By using data-driven testing, the same test case can be executed multiple times with different sets of data and thus helps to identify bugs and defects in the software by verifying if the application behaves correctly under different input conditions.

We use data-driven testing commonly used in functional and performance testing where large amounts of data need to be processed and analyzed and also it is especially useful in testing applications that involve complex calculations or data transformations.

167. What is model-based testing?

Model-based testing is an approach to software testing that uses models to represent the desired behavior of a system under test and these models can be created using various techniques such as flowcharts, state diagrams, decision tables, or other graphical representations.

Once a model is created then automated test cases can be generated from it to validate the behavior of the system. The test cases are derived by analyzing the model and its possible scenarios to determine the input values and expected output results.

Model-based testing helps in identifying potential defects early in the development lifecycle and provides better coverage of the system under test compared to manual testing. It can also reduce the time and effort required for testing as well as improve the quality of the software being tested.

168. What is requirement-based testing?

Requirement-based testing is a testing approach that focuses on verifying whether the software system or application meets the requirements specified in the requirements documentation and test cases in this testing are derived from the requirements themselves and are designed to validate that the software system satisfies each requirement.

The process of requirement-based testing involves:

  • Analyzing the requirements documentation

  • Identifying the testable requirements

  • Designing test cases

  • Executing the tests

  • Reporting any defects found during testing.

This approach ensures that the software system meets the functional and non-functional requirements and helps to ensure that the software is developed according to the user’s needs and expectations.

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169. What is a regression test suite?

A regression test suite is a collection of test cases that are executed to ensure that changes made to an application do not affect the existing functionality. Regression testing is performed to ensure that new changes or bug fixes do not create new issues or break existing functionality.

A regression test suite usually contains a set of test cases that are run periodically or after each new release to ensure that the software still behaves as expected. Whenever we have an update in our mobile then these test cases are run to check the working condition of our mobile as well as new features’ functioning.

170. What is agile testing?

Agile testing is a testing methodology that follows the principles of agile software development. It involves testing and delivering software iteratively and incrementally with a focus on collaboration, flexibility, and customer satisfaction.

In agile testing, testing activities are integrated into the development process rather than being a separate phase. The testers work closely with the development team and testing is done continuously throughout the development cycle and this helps to identify and address defects early on resulting in reduced cost and effort required to fix them.

Agile testing involves a range of testing activities including unit testing, integration testing, acceptance testing, exploratory testing, and test automation, and testers use a variety of techniques such as user stories, acceptance criteria, and test-driven development to ensure that the software meets the customer’s requirements and is of high quality.

Agile testing also focuses on communication and collaboration between team members including developers, testers, product owners, and customers. Testers provide feedback to the development team and then the team works together to continuously improve the software and the testing process. This helps to ensure that the software meets the customer’s needs and is delivered on time and within budget.

171. What do you understand by the term Browser automation?

Browser automation refers to the process of automating tasks and interactions performed in a web browser and it involves using software tools or frameworks to simulate user actions such as clicking buttons, filling out forms, navigating through web pages, and extracting data from websites.

Browser automation is commonly used in web testing where automated tests are executed in a web browser to verify the functionality, performance, and compatibility of web applications. It allows testers to automate repetitive tasks, execute test cases across multiple browsers and platforms, and improve the efficiency of the testing process.

Key concepts related to browser automation include:

  • Browser Drivers: Browser automation tools often require the use of browser drivers which act as intermediaries between the automation tool and the web browser. The drivers enable the automation tool to control the browser and perform actions programmatically.

  • Scripting or Programming Language: Browser automation is typically implemented using scripting or programming languages such as JavaScript, Python, or Java as these languages provide libraries or frameworks that offer APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) to interact with browsers and automate tasks.

  • DOM Manipulation: Browser automation involves manipulating the Document Object Model (DOM) of web pages. Test scripts can access and modify elements on web pages, interact with forms, validate responses, and perform various operations to simulate user behavior.

  • Cross-Browser Compatibility: Browser automation allows tests to be executed across different web browsers, ensuring compatibility and consistency of web applications across various platforms and browser versions.

  • Headless Browsers: Headless browsers are browser automation tools that operate without a graphical user interface (GUI). They allow for faster and more efficient execution of tests and are often used in continuous integration and deployment pipelines.

Overall, browser automation simplifies the testing process by automating repetitive tasks, enabling consistent test execution across multiple browsers, and improving efficiency. It helps ensure the quality and reliability of web applications by validating their behavior under different scenarios and configurations.

172. What is user interface testing?

User interface testing is a type of software testing that is performed to validate the graphical user interface (GUI) of an application. The purpose of user interface testing is to ensure that the application’s interface is user-friendly, easy to navigate, and meets the user’s requirements. When we open and unlock a mobile then its GUI is coming into action and is responsible for experience on different applications. User interface testing usually involves testing the layout, design, and functionality of an application’s GUI.

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173. What is an accessibility audit?

Review of a system or application’s accessibility features and compliance with accessibility standards is referred to as an accessibility audit. The main goal of an accessibility audit is to evaluate the system’s ability to provide equal access and usability for users with disabilities such as visual, auditory, or motor impairments and typically involves a thorough analysis of the system’s accessibility features such as color contrast, keyboard navigation and assistive technology compatibility.

174. What is a code review checklist?

A code review checklist contains a set of guidelines that we use to outline the criteria for reviewing a piece of software code to ensure its quality, maintainability, and adherence to best practices and usually includes a list of items that need to be evaluated during the code review process such as coding standards, performance, security, scalability, and error handling.

The purpose of a code review checklist is to ensure that the code we have written is optimized for performance, is secure from attacks, is easily maintainable, and is in compliance with industry standards. By following a code review checklist, developers can identify potential bugs and issues before the code is deployed to production hence reducing the likelihood of costly errors and downtime.

A code review checklist can be tailored to fit the specific needs of a project or organization and can be used in conjunction with other software development methodologies such as Agile or DevOps. By using a code review checklist we can ensure that their code is of high quality while meeting project requirements and aligns with industry best practices.

175. What is a test plan checklist?

A test plan checklist is a document that guides on the important items that should be included in a test plan which helps in creating a comprehensive test plan that covers all aspects of the testing process such as test objectives, methodology, test coverage, resources, schedule, and test deliverables. Hence checklist ensures that all necessary elements are included in the test plan and nothing important is left out. Additionally, it serves as a reference guide for the testing team to ensure that the test plan is being executed as intended.

176. What is a test case checklist?

A test case checklist can be defined as a document that provides us with guidelines for creating effective test cases. It also outlines the important elements that we should include in a test case, such as test objectives, test steps, expected results, test data, and test conditions. The checklist helps us to ensure that all necessary aspects of a test case are covered, making it easier to identify defects and validate system functionality. Overall we can say that it also helps us to ensure that all test cases are consistent and follow the same structure and thus making it easier for us to understand and maintain the test cases over time.

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177. What is a defect report template?

A defect report template is a document that outlines the essential elements of a defect report which includes the details of the defect such as the description, severity, steps to reproduce, and expected and actual results. The template helps to ensure that all necessary information is included in the defect report, making it easier for the development team to reproduce and fix the defect. It also helps to ensure that all defect reports follow a consistent structure, making it easier to track and manage defects over time.

178. What is a test case template?

A test case template is a document that contains the steps that should be taken to test a particular feature or functionality of a software application. It typically includes the details of the test scenario such as the input data that should be used, the expected output, and any preconditions or assumptions that should be met before the test can be performed. The template is used to ensure that all test cases are consistent in terms of format and level of detail hence making it easier to manage and execute the testing process.

179. What is a test log template?

A test log template is a document that provides a structured approach to recording the results of test execution which outlines the important elements that should be included in the test log such as the test case ID, the status of the test case, the actual results, the date and time of execution and any defects found. The template helps us to ensure that all necessary information is recorded in the test log, making it easier to track the progress of testing and identify any issues that may arise.

180. What is a test summary report template?

A test summary report template is a document that provides an overview of the testing process and result which includes information on the test objectives, scope, methodology, test coverage, resources, schedule, and test results. The template helps you to ensure that all important aspects of the testing process are covered in the summary report hence making it easier to communicate the results of the testing to stakeholders. It also helps to ensure that the summary report follows a consistent structure, making it easier to compare and understand the results of testing across different projects.

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181. What is a test execution report template?

A test execution report template is a document that contains a detailed summary of the test execution process which includes information on the test cases executed, the test results and any defects found during the testing process. The template helps us to ensure that all necessary information is included in the test execution report and thus makes it easier for us to track the progress of testing and identify any issues that may arise.

182. What is a test automation script template?

A test automation script template is a predefined format that testers use for creating test automation scripts. Generally, it includes the necessary steps and commands used for the automation tool to execute the test cases. The template contains the following details such as test case name, test steps, expected results, actual results, and pass/fail status. Testers can save time and reduce errors that may occur during the test automation script creation process by using a template.

183. What is a test data management plan?

A test data management plan is a document that outlines the strategy and procedures for managing test data throughout the testing life cycle. It defines the types of data needed, the source of the data, the frequency of data refresh, and the process for securing and protecting the data. The plan also includes guidelines needed for creating and maintaining test data sets and ensuring their accuracy and completeness.

184. What is a test environment setup guide?

A test environment setup guide is a document that provides step-by-step instructions on how to set up the necessary environment for software testing and outlines the hardware, software, network configurations, and other components required to create a controlled testing environment. The purpose of the setup guide is to ensure consistency and reliability in the testing process by providing a standardized approach to setting up the test environment.

The test environment setup guide includes the following information:

  • Hardware Requirements: It specifies the hardware resources needed for testing such as servers, workstations, storage devices, and peripherals which includes details like processor, memory, storage capacity, and any specific hardware configurations.

  • Software Requirements: It lists the software components required for testing which includes the operating system, databases, web servers, application servers, and any other tools or frameworks needed. It specifies the compatible versions and configurations necessary for the test environment.

  • Network Configuration: It provides instructions on configuring the network settings to replicate the desired testing environment which may include setting up IP addresses, firewalls, subnet masks, domain configurations, routers, and any other network components necessary for testing.

  • Test Data Preparation: It outlines the steps to prepare the test data required for testing which may involve creating sample data, anonymizing sensitive data, or extracting data from the production environment. It specifies the sources, formats, and any specific considerations for test data generation.

  • Testing Tools and Frameworks: It provides guidance on installing, configuring, and integrating the testing tools and frameworks needed for the test environment which includes test automation tools, defect tracking systems, test management tools, performance testing tools, security testing tools, and any other relevant tools.

  • Environment Validation: It includes instructions on verifying the test environment to ensure that all components are functioning correctly which involves conducting initial tests to validate the stability and readiness of the environment for testing. It also outlines how to handle any issues or discrepancies encountered during the validation process.

  • Troubleshooting and Support: It gives troubleshooting tips and guidelines to address common issues that may arise during the test environment setup. It provides contact information or resources for obtaining technical support or assistance in case of any difficulties faced during the setup process.

The test environment setup guide serves as a reference for testers and ensures that the test environment is consistently set up across different testing activities and helps in reducing the setup time, eliminates guesswork, and improves the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the testing process.

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185. What is test prioritization?

Test prioritization is the process of determining the order in which tests should be executed based on their importance, criticality, and impact on the system under test. It involves assigning priorities to individual test cases or test scenarios to ensure that the most critical and high-risk areas are tested first. Test prioritization helps in optimizing testing efforts, focusing on high-value tests, and maximizing the effectiveness of testing within the available resources and time constraints.

Here are some key considerations for test prioritization:

  • Business Impact: Tests that cover critical business processes or functionalities should be given higher priority. These are the areas that have a significant impact on the success of the software or system being tested.

  • Risk Analysis: Analyze the risks associated with different features or components of the system. Prioritize tests that address high-risk areas such as security vulnerabilities, performance bottlenecks, or critical user workflows.

  • Functional Dependencies: Identify any dependencies between different functionalities or modules. Prioritize tests that verify core functionalities or components that are prerequisites for other tests.

  • Test Coverage: Consider the coverage provided by each test case or test scenario. Prioritize tests that provide broader coverage such as tests that cover multiple scenarios or test critical boundary conditions.

  • Defect History: Take into account the historical data on defects and issues reported during previous testing phases or production. Prioritize tests that address the areas with a higher likelihood of defects based on past experience.

  • Schedule Constraints: Consider the available testing timeline and resource constraints. Prioritize tests that can be completed within the given timeframe, taking into account the time required for test execution, analysis, and reporting.

  • Stakeholder Requirements: Take into consideration the expectations and requirements of different stakeholders such as clients, end-users, or regulatory bodies. Prioritize tests that align with these requirements and address their concerns.

By prioritizing tests effectively, testing teams can focus their efforts on critical areas, identify major issues early in the testing process, and ensure that the most important functionalities are thoroughly tested. It helps in maximizing the value of testing and delivering a high-quality software product.

186. What is test scheduling?

Test scheduling refers to the process of planning and organizing the execution of software tests within a defined timeframe and involves determining when and in what order tests should be executed based on various factors such as project timelines, test priorities, resource availability, and dependencies.

The goal of test scheduling is to effectively allocate resources and manage the testing process to ensure that testing activities are completed within the project timeline and meet the project objectives. It involves creating a schedule or timeline that outlines the sequence of test activities, their durations, and the resources required.

Key considerations in test scheduling include:

  • Test Prioritization: Tests should be prioritized based on their criticality and impact on the system under test. High-priority tests such as those related to critical functionalities or areas prone to defects should be scheduled early in the testing process.

  • Dependencies: Some tests may have dependencies on other tests or system components. It is important to identify and consider these dependencies when scheduling tests to ensure that prerequisites are met before executing dependent tests.

  • Resource Availability: Test scheduling should take into account the availability of resources including testers, test environments, test data, and any necessary tools or equipment. Adequate resources should be allocated to each test activity to ensure efficient execution.

  • Project Timelines: Test scheduling should align with the overall project timelines and milestones. It is important to allocate sufficient time for testing activities including test planning, preparation, execution, and defect management, within the project schedule.

  • Risk-Based Approach: A risk-based approach to test scheduling involves focusing more testing efforts on high-risk areas or functionalities that are critical to the success of the project. Tests related to areas with higher potential risks should be scheduled earlier to allow ample time for mitigation if issues are identified.

  • Test Execution Order: The order in which tests are executed can impact the efficiency and effectiveness of the testing process. It is generally recommended to start with smoke tests or basic functionality tests before moving on to more comprehensive or complex tests.

Test scheduling helps ensure that testing activities are conducted in a structured and planned manner, enabling timely identification of defects and reducing the overall project risk. It allows project stakeholders to have visibility into the testing progress and helps in making informed decisions based on the test results.

187. What is a test data management tool?

Test data management tools are software solutions designed to assist in the management, generation, and manipulation of test data used in software testing processes. These tools help testing teams in creating, maintaining, and provisioning test data for various testing activities, ensuring that the right data is available at the right time to support testing efforts.

Here are some key features and benefits of test data management tools:

  • Data Generation: Test data management tools allow testers to generate realistic and diverse test data sets that cover a wide range of scenarios and conditions. These tools can automatically generate data based on predefined rules, data models, or statistical algorithms, saving time and effort in manual data creation.

  • Data Masking and Privacy: Test data management tools offer capabilities to mask or anonymize sensitive or confidential data, ensuring compliance with data privacy regulations and protecting sensitive information during testing and this helps in maintaining data security and privacy while working with production-like test environments.

  • Data Subset and Refresh: Test data management tools enable testers to create subsets of large databases, selecting specific data subsets relevant to the test cases being executed. These tools also facilitate data refresh activities, allowing testers to quickly reset the test environment to a known state by replacing existing data with fresh or representative data subsets.

  • Data Provisioning and Synchronization: Test data management tools support the provisioning and synchronization of test data across multiple test environments or systems and thus ensure consistency and availability of the required data for testing activities even in distributed or parallel testing environments.

  • Data Dependency Management: Test data management tools help in managing complex data dependencies, ensuring that test data is provided in the correct order to support the execution of test cases. These tools can handle dependencies between test cases, data tables, or external systems, ensuring accurate and reliable test data provisioning.

  • Data Reporting and Analysis: Test data management tools provide reporting and analysis features to track and analyze the usage of test data, identify data-related issues or bottlenecks, and optimize test data management processes. These tools can generate reports on data coverage, data quality, data usage patterns, and data provisioning statistics.

  • Integration with Test Automation Tools: Many test data management tools integrate with test automation frameworks and tools and thus allowing seamless integration of test data provisioning and manipulation within automated test scripts. This streamlines the test automation process and ensures consistent and reliable test data availability.

Overall, test data management tools help in improving the efficiency, accuracy, and effectiveness of test data management activities, reducing the time and effort required for test data setup and maintenance. These tools contribute to better test coverage, data privacy and security, and overall testing productivity.

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Conclusion

In conclusion, we know that preparing for a software testing interview can be challenging, but with the right resources and approach, it is still a manageable task. This compilation of 170+ interview questions we have covered various aspects of software testing can serve as a valuable resource for your job interview in this field.

Some of the important topics covered in these questions include different types of testing, testing methodologies, testing tools, software development life cycles, testing documentation, and terms you frequently hear while preparing for this field. It is important to not only memorize the answers to these questions but also to understand the underlying concepts and principles behind them.

In addition to studying these questions, it is also important for you to practice and gain hands-on experience with testing tools and techniques. This can help demonstrate your skills and knowledge during the interview process.

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